, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 23–30 | Cite as

Hard to remove water in cellulose fibers characterized by high resolution thermogravimetric analysis - methods development

  • Sunkyu Park
  • Richard A. Venditti
  • Hasan Jameel
  • Joel J. Pawlak


A new method is applied to classify water, termed ‘hard-to-remove (HR) water’, in a cellulosic fiber and water system from an isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The hard-to-remove (HR) water content is defined as the moisture ratio (g of water / g of dry sample) of the fiber-water system at the transition between the constant rate zone and the falling rate zone of evaporative change in mass. Specific experimental conditions have been defined for an appropriate measurement of the HR water content. The HR water content was correlated with measurable characteristics of cellulosic fibers including water retention value and freeness. The new TGA protocol can be performed on extremely small samples as a convenient and insightful characterization technique for cellulosic fibers.


Bound water Cellulose fibers Freeness Hard-to-remove water TGA Thermogravimetric analysis Water retention value 


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The authors thank TA Instruments for making their TGA and DSC instruments available for this research. This study was funded by a generous grant from Procter & Gamble. We would like to thank Prof. M.A. Hubbe for his valuable comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sunkyu Park
    • 1
  • Richard A. Venditti
    • 1
  • Hasan Jameel
    • 1
  • Joel J. Pawlak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Wood and Paper ScienceNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

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