Advertisement

Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 217–233 | Cite as

The Influence of Culture on Anxiety in Latino Youth: A Review

  • R. Enrique Varela
  • Lauren Hensley-Maloney
Article

Abstract

This article reviews the literature on how culture influences anxiety in Latino youth. First, a review of cross-cultural variations in prevalence and measurement is presented. Then, the article focuses on how culture impacts the meaning and expression of anxiety. Specifically, we discuss the meaning and expression of anxiety, the impact of culture on anxiety at a societal level and through its effect on family and cognitive processes, and the influence of immigration and acculturation on anxiety. Finally, we propose recommendations on how to advance the literature in this area building on existing knowledge.

Keywords

Anxiety Latino Children Culture Hispanic 

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., Bird, H. R., Canino, G., Phares, V., Gould, M. S., & Rubio-Stipec, M. (1990). Epidemiological comparisons of Puerto Rican and U.S. mainland children: Parent, teacher, and self-reports. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 84–93. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199001000-00014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1983). Manual for the child behavior checklist and revised child behavior profile. Burlington, VA: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1986). Manual for the teacher’s report form and teacher version of the child behavior profile. Burlington, VA: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  4. Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1987). Manual for the youth self report and profile. Burlington, VA: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  5. Achenbach, T., & Rescorla, L. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.Google Scholar
  6. Alva, S. A., & de los Reyes, R. (1999). Psychosocial stress, internalized symptoms, and the academic achievement of Hispanic adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 14, 343–356. doi: 10.1177/0743558499143004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alvidrez, J. (1999). Ethnic variations in mental health attitudes and service use among low-income African American, Latina, and European American young women. Community Mental Health Journal, 35, 515–530. doi: 10.1023/A:1018759201290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Angold, A., Erkanli, A., Farmer, E. M. Z., Fairbank, J. A., Burns, B. J., Keeler, G., et al. (2002). Psychiatric disorder, impairment, and service use in rural African American and White youth. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 893–901. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.59.10.893.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Angold, A., Prendergast, M., Cox, A., Harrington, R., Simonoff, E., & Rutter, M. (1995). The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA). Psychological Medicine, 25, 753–793.Google Scholar
  10. Arcia, E., Castillo, H., & Fernandez, M. C. (2004). Maternal cognitions about distress and anxiety in young Latino children with disruptive behaviors. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41, 99–119. doi: 10.1177/1363461504041356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baer, R. D., Weller, S. C., de Alba, J. G., Glazer, M., Trotter, R., Pachter, L., et al. (2003). A cross-cultural approach to the study of the folk illness nervios. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 27, 315–337. doi: 10.1023/A:1025351231862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barlow, D. H. (2002). Origins of apprehension, anxiety disorders, and related disorders. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (pp. 252–291). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  13. Barlow, D. H., Chorpita, B. F., & Turovsky, J. (1996). Fear, panic, anxiety, and disorders of emotion. In D. A. Hope (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1995: Perspectives on anxiety, panic, and fear (pp. 251–328). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  14. Barrett, P. M., Rapee, R. M., Dadds, M. M., & Ryan, S. M. (1996). Family enhancement of cognitive style in anxious and aggressive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 187–203. doi: 10.1007/BF01441484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bauermeister, J., Colon-Fumero, O., Villamil-Forastieri, B., & Spielberger, C. D. (1986). Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the state-trait anxiety inventory for Puerto Rican and Panamenian children. Revista Interamericana de Psicología, 20, 1–19.Google Scholar
  16. Bernal, M. E., Saenz, D. S., & Knight, G. P. (1991). Ethnic identity and adaptation of Mexican American youths in school settings. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 13, 135–154. doi: 10.1177/07399863910132002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Berry, J. W. (2003). Conceptual approaches to acculturation. In K. M. Chun, P. B. Organista, & G. Marin (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 17–37). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Berstein, G. A., & Borchardt, C. M. (1991). Anxiety disorders of childhood and adolescence: A critical review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 519–532.Google Scholar
  19. Bravo, M., Ribera, J., Rubio-Stipec, M., Canino, G., Shrout, P., Ramirez, R., et al. (2001). Test-retest reliability of the Spanish version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 433–444. doi: 10.1023/A:1010499520090.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Canino, G., Shrout, P. E., Rubio-Stipec, M., Bird, H. R., Bravo, M., Ramirez, R., et al. (2004). The DSM-IV rates of child and adolescent disorders in Puerto Rico. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 85–93. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.61.1.85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cattell, R. B., & Scheier, I. H. (1961). The meaning and measurement of neuroticism and anxiety. Oxford, England: Ronald.Google Scholar
  22. Cervantes, R. C., & Castro, F. G. (1985). Stress, coping, and Mexican American mental health: A systematic review. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 7, 1–73. doi: 10.1177/07399863850071001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chorpita, B. F., Albano, A. M., & Barlow, D. H. (1996). Cognitive processing in children: Relation to anxiety and family influences. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 170–176. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2502_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chorpita, B. F., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the family environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 3–21. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chorpita, B. F., Tracey, S. F., Brown, T. A., Collica, T. J., & Barlow, D. H. (1997). Assessment of worry in children and adolescents: An adaptation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 569–581. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(96)00116-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. A., & Francis, S. E. (2000). Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: A revised child anxiety and depression scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 835–855. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(99)00130-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chun, K. M., Organista, P. B., & Marin, G. (Eds.). (2003). Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  28. Compas, B. E. (1987). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310–357.Google Scholar
  29. Costello, E. J., Angold, A., Burns, B. J., Erkanli, A., Stangl, D. K., & Tweed, D. L. (1996). The Great Smoky Mountains study of youth: Functional impairment and serious emotional disturbance. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 1137–1143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Craske, M. G. (1999). Anxiety disorders: Psychological approaches to theory and treatment. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  31. Deater-Deckard, K., & Dodge, K. A. (1997). Externalizing behavior problems and discipline revisited: Nonlinear effects and variation by culture, context, and gender. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 161–175. doi: 10.1207/s15327965pli0803_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Derogatis, L. R. (2000). BSI-18: Administration, scoring, and procedures manual. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.Google Scholar
  33. de Minzi, M. C. R., & Sacchi, C. (1999). Variables moderadoras del estres. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicologia, 31, 355–365.Google Scholar
  34. Draguns, J. G. (1973). Comparisons of psychopathology across cultures: Issues, findings, directions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 4, 9–47. doi: 10.1177/002202217300400104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eagleton, T. (2000). The idea of culture. Oxford, England: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  36. Escobar, J. I., Nervi, C. H., & Gara, M. A. (2000). Immigration and mental health: Mexican Americans in the United States. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 8, 64–72. doi: 10.1093/hrp/8.2.64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fonseca, A. C., Yule, W., & Erol, N. (1994). Cross-cultural issues. In T. H. Ollendick, N. J. King, & W. Yule (Eds.), International handbook of phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (pp. 67–84). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  38. Gabrielidis, C., Stephan, W. G., Ybarra, O., Pearson, V. M., & Villareal, L. (1997). Preferred styles of conflict resolution: Mexico and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28, 661–677. doi: 10.1177/0022022197286002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gamst, G., Dana, R. H., Der-Karabetian, A., Aragon, M., Arellano, L. M., & Kramer, T. (2002). Effects of Latino acculturation and ethnic identity on mental health outcomes. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 24, 479–504. doi: 10.1177/0739986302238216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ginsburg, G. S., & Silverman, W. K. (1996). Phobic disorders in Hispanic and European-American youth. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 10, 517–528. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6185(96)00027-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Glover, S. H., Pumariega, A. J., Holzer, C. E., Wise, B. K., & Rodriguez, M. (1999). Anxiety symptomatology in Mexican-American adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 8, 47–57. doi: 10.1023/A:1022994510944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Good, B., & Kleinman, A. (1985). Culture and anxiety: Cross-cultural evidence for the patterning of anxiety disorders. In A. H. Tuma & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp. 297–323). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  43. Gould, M., Bird, H., & Staghezza, J. B. (1993). Correspondence between statistically derived behavior problem syndromes and child psychiatric diagnoses in a community sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 287–313. doi: 10.1007/BF00917536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gray, J. A. (1991). Fear, panic, and anxiety: What’s in a name? Psychological Inquiry, 2, 77–78. doi: 10.1207/s15327965pli0201_18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Griffith, J. (1982). Relationship between acculturation and psychological impairment in adult Mexican Americans. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 5, 431–459. doi: 10.1177/073998638300500404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gross, D., Fogg, L., Young, M., Ridge, A., Cowell, J. M., Richardson, R., et al. (2006). The equivalence of the Child Behavior Checklist/11/2-5 across parent race/ethnicity, income level, and language. Psychological Assessment, 18, 313–323. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.18.3.313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Guarnaccia, P. J., Canino, G., Rubio-Stipec, M., & Bravo, M. (1993). The prevalence of Ataques de Nervios in the Puerto Rico disaster study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 181, 157–165. doi: 10.1097/00005053-199303000-00003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Guarnaccia, P. J., DeLaCancela, V., & Carrillo, E. (1989a). The multiple meanings of ataques de nervios in the Latino community. Medical Anthropology, 11, 47–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Guarnaccia, P. J., & Farias, P. (1988). The social meanings of nervios: A case study of a Central American woman. Social Science and Medicine, 26, 1223–1231. doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(88)90154-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Guarnaccia, P. J., Martinez, I., Ramirez, R., & Canino, G. (2005). Are ataques de nervios in Puerto Rican children associated with psychiatric disorder? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 1184–1192. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000177059.34031.5d.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Guarnaccia, P. J., Parra, P., DesChamps, A., Milstein, G., & Argiles, N. (1992). Si Dios quiere: Hispanic families’ experiences of caring for a seriously mentally ill family member. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 16, 187–215. doi: 10.1007/BF00117018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Guarnaccia, P. J., Rivera, M., Franco, F., & Neighbors, C. (1996). The experiences of ataques de nervios: Towards an anthropology of emotions in Puerto Rico. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 20, 343–367. doi: 10.1007/BF00113824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guarnaccia, P. J., Rubio-Stipec, M., & Canino, G. (1989b). Ataques de nervios in the Puerto Rican Diagnostic Interview Schedule: The impact of cultural categories on psychiatric epidemiology. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 13, 275–295. doi: 10.1007/BF00054339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Harre, R., & Parrott, W. G. (1996). The emotions: Social, cultural, and biological dimensions. London, England: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  55. Heinrichs, N., Rapee, R. M., Alden, L. A., Bogels, S., Hofmann, S. G., Oh, K. J., et al. (2006). Cultural differences in perceived social norms and social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1187–1197. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.09.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  57. Hui, C. H., & Triandis, H. C. (1985). Measurement in cross-cultural psychology: A review and comparison of strategies. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 16, 131–152. doi: 10.1177/0022002185016002001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ispa, J. M., Fine, M. A., Halgunseth, L. C., Harper, S., Robinson, J., Boyce, L., et al. (2004). Maternal intrusiveness, maternal warmth, and mother-toddler relationship outcomes: Variations across low-income ethnic and acculturation groups. Child Development, 75, 1613–1631. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00806.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Izard, C. E., & Blumberg, S. H. (1985). Emotion theory and the role of emotions in anxiety in children and adults. In A. H. Tuma & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp. 109–129). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  60. Jenkins, J. H. (1988a). Ethnopsychiatric interpretations of schizophrenic illness: The problem of nervios within Mexican-American families. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 12, 301–329. doi: 10.1007/BF00051972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jenkins, J. H. (1988b). Conceptions of schizophrenia as a problem nerves: A cross-cultural comparison of Mexican-Americans and Anglo-Americans. Social Science and Medicine, 26, 1233–1243. doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(88)90155-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Joiner, T. E., Catanzaro, S. J., & Laurent, J. (1996). Tripartite structure of positive and negative affect, depression, and anxiety in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 401–409. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.105.3.401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kashani, J. H., & Orvaschel, H. (1990). A community study of anxiety in children and adolescents. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 313–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Keefe, S. E. (1981). Folk medicine among urban Mexican Americans: Cultural persistence, change, and displacement. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 3, 41–58.Google Scholar
  65. Keller, M. B., Lavori, P. W., Wunder, J., Beardslee, W. R., & Schwartz, C. E. (1992). Chronic course of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 595–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kirmayer, L. (1984). Culture, affect and somatization—Part II. Transcultural Psychiatry Review, 21, 237–262. doi: 10.1177/136346158402100401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kirmayer, L. J. (1997). Culture and anxiety: A clinical and research agenda. In S. Friedman (Ed.), Cultural issues in the treatment of anxiety. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  68. Kirmayer, L. J. (2001). Cultural variations in the clinical presentation of depression and anxiety: Implications for diagnosis and treatment. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 22–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kirmayer, L. J., & Young, A. (1998). Culture and somatization: Clinical, epidemiological, and ethnographic perspectives. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 420–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kirmayer, L. J., Young, A., & Hayton, B. C. (1995). The cultural context of anxiety disorders. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18, 503–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kitayama, S., & Cohen, D. (2007). Handbook of cultural psychology. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  72. Kleinman, A. M. (1977). Depression, somatization and the new cross-cultural psychiatry. Social Science and Medicine, 11, 3–10. doi: 10.1016/0037-7856(77)90138-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Knight, G. P., & Hill, N. E. (1998). Measurement equivalence in research involving minority adolescents. In V. C. McLoyd & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Studying minority adolescents: Conceptual, methodological, and theoretical issues (pp. 183–210). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  74. Kort, F., Garcia, J. H., & Perez, L. (1998). Estado psicológico del habitante de Caracas (Venezuela). Revista Latinoamericana de Psicologia, 30, 137–146.Google Scholar
  75. La Greca, A. M., Silverman, W. K., Vernberg, E. M., & Prinstein, M. J. (1996). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress in children following Hurricane Andrew: A prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 712–723. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.64.4.712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lang, P. J. (1985). The cognitive psychophysiology of emotion: Fear and anxiety. In A. H. Tuma & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp. 131–170). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  77. Last, C. G., Hanson, C., & Franco, N. (1997). Anxious children in adulthood: A prospective study of adjustment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 645–652. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199705000-00015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Last, C. G., Perrin, S., Hersen, M., & Kazdin, A. E. (1996). A prospective study of childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1502–1510. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199611000-00019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lewis-Fernandez, R., Guarnaccia, P. J., Martinez, I. E., Salman, E., Schmidt, A., & Liebowitz, M. (2002). Comparative phenomenology of ataques de nervios, panic attacks, and panic disorder. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 26, 199–223. doi: 10.1023/A:1016349624867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Liebowitz, M. R., Salman, E., Jusino, C. M., Garfinkel, R., Street, L., Cardenas, D. L., et al. (1994). Ataque de nervios and panic disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 871–875.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lindahl, K. M., & Malik, N. M. (1999). Marital conflict, family processes, and boys’ externalizing behavior in Hispanic American and European American families. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 12–24. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2801_2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lipowski, Z. P. (1988). Somatization: The concept and its clinical application. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1358–1368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lopez, I., Rivera, F., Ramirez, R., Guarnaccia, P. J., Canino, G., & Bird, H. R. (in press). Ataques de nervios and its psychiatric correlates in Puerto Rican children from two different countries. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.Google Scholar
  84. Luis, T., Varela, R. E., & Moore, K. (2008). Parenting practices and childhood anxiety reporting: A comparison of Mexican, Mexican American, and European American youth. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1011–1020. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.11.001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Magaña, S. M., Garcia, J. I. R., Hernandez, M. G., & Cortez, R. (2007). Psychological distress among Latino family caregivers of adults with schizophrenia: The roles of burden and stigma. Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.), 58, 378–384. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.58.3.378.Google Scholar
  86. Manassis, K., & Bradley, S. J. (1994). The development of childhood anxiety disorders: Toward an integrated model. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 345–366. doi: 10.1016/0193-3973(94)90037-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. March, J. S., Parker, J. D. A., Sullivan, K., Stallings, P., & Conners, K. (1997). The multi-dimensional anxiety scale for children (MASC): Factor structure, reliability, and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 554–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Marin, G., & Marin, B. V. (1991). Research with Hispanic populations. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  89. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Marsella, A. J. (1988). Cross-cultural research on severe mental disorders: Issues and findings. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 78, 7–22. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1988.tb08998.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McCloskey, D. M., Hess, R. S., & D’Amato, R. C. (2003). Evaluating the utility of the Spanish version of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Parent report system. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 21, 325–337. doi: 10.1177/073428290302100402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McLaughlin, K. A., Hilt, L. M., & Nolen-Hoeksemsa, S. (2007). Racial/ethnic differences in internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 801–816. doi: 10.1007/s10802-007-9128-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mesquita, M., & Frijda, N. H. (1992). Cultural variations in emotions: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 179–204. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.112.2.179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mesquita, B., & Walker, R. (2003). Cultural differences in emotions: A context for interpreting emotional experiences. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 777–793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Milstein, G., Guarnaccia, P., & Midlarsky, E. (1995). Ethnic differences in the interpretation of mental illness: Perspectives of caregivers. Research in Community and Mental Health, 8, 155–178.Google Scholar
  96. Moreno, C., del Barrio, V., & Mestre, V. (1995). Ansiedad y acontecimientos vitales en adolescentes. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicologia, 27, 471–496.Google Scholar
  97. Moyerman, D. R., & Forman, B. D. (1992). Acculturation and adjustment: A meta-analytic study. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 183–205.Google Scholar
  98. Oh, K. J., Shin, Y. J., Moon, K. J., Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. (2002). Childrearing practices and psychological disorders in children: Cross-cultural comparison of Korea and Australia. Yonsei Medical Journal, 43, 411–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ollendick, T. H. (1983). Reliability and validity of the revised Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-R). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 21, 395–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ollendick, T. H., Yang, B., King, N. J., Dong, Q., & Akande, A. (1996). Fears in American, Australian, Chinese, and Nigerian children and adolescents: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 37, 213–220. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1996.tb01393.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Padilla, A. M., Cervantes, R. C., Maldonado, M., & Garcia, R. E. (1988). Coping responses to psychosocial stressors among Mexican and Central American immigrants. Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 418–427. doi: 10.1002/1520-6629(198810)16:4<418::AID-JCOP2290160407>3.0.CO;2-R.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Padilla, A. M., & Perez, W. (2003). Acculturation, social identity, and social cognition: A new perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25, 35–55. doi: 10.1177/0739986303251694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Padilla, Y. C., Radey, M. D., Hummer, R. A., & Kim, E. (2006). The living conditions of U.S.-born children of Mexican immigrants in unmarried families. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 28, 331–349. doi: 10.1177/0739986306290367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Padilla, A. M., & Salgado de Snyder, V. N. (1988). Psychology in pre-Columbian Mexico. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 10, 55–66. doi: 10.1177/07399863880101004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Parke, R. D., Coltrane, S., Duffy, S., Buriel, R., Dennis, J., Powers, J., et al. (2004). Economic stress, parenting, and child adjustment in Mexican American and European American families. Child Development, 75, 1632–1656. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00807.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Phillips, B. M., Lonigan, C. J., Driscoll, K., & Hooe, E. S. (2002). Positive and negative affectivity in children: A multitrait-multimethod investigation. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 465–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Phinney, J. S., Madden, T., & Santos, L. J. (1998). Psychological variables as predictors of perceived ethnic discrimination among minority and immigrant adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 937–953. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01661.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pina, A., Little, M., Knight, G. P., & Silverman, W. K. (2009). Cross-ethnic measurement equivalence of the RCMAS in Latino and Caucasian youth with anxiety disorders. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 58–61. doi: 10.1080/00223890802484183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pina, A., & Silverman, W. K. (2004). Clinical phenomenology, somatic symptoms, and distress in Hispanic/Latino and European American youths with anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 227–236. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3302_3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pollock, R. A., Rosenblaum, J. F., Marrs, A., Miller, B. S., & Biederman, J. (1995). Anxiety disorders of childhood: Implications for adult psychopathology. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18, 745–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Pryor-Brown, L., & Cowen, E. L. (1989). Stressful life events, support, and children’s school adjustment. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, 214–220. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp1803_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ramirez, R. R., & de la Cruz, P. G. (2003). The Hispanic population in the United States: March 2002 (Current Population Reports. Series P-28. Special Censuses, 520–545). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  113. Reich, W. (2000). Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 59–66. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200001000-00017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2002). The clinician’s guide to the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  115. Reynolds, C. R., & Richmond, B. O. (1978). What I think and feel: A revised measure of children’s manifest anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 271–280. doi: 10.1007/BF00919131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Richmond, B. O., Rodrigo, G., & de Rodrigo, M. (1988). Factor structure of a Spanish version of the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale in Uruguay. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 165–170. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rogler, L. H., Cortes, D. E., & Malgady, R. G. (1991). Acculturation and mental health status among Hispanics. The American Psychologist, 46, 585–597. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.46.6.585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rubio-Stipec, M., Bird, H., Canino, G., & Gould, M. (1990). The internal consistency and concurrent validity of a Spanish translation of the Child Behavior Checklist. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 3939–4406. doi: 10.1007/BF00917642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rutter, M. (1994). Stress research: Accomplishments and the tasks ahead. In R. J. Haggerty, L. R. Sherrod, N. Garmezy, & M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, risk and resilience and children and adolescents: Processes, Mechanisms, and interventions (pp. 354–385). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Salgado de Snyder, V. N., Diaz-Perez, M. J., & Ojeda, V. D. (2000). The prevalence of nervios and associated symptomatology among inhabitants of Mexican rural communities. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 24, 453–470. doi: 10.1023/A:1005655331794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Salman, E., Diamond, K., Jusino, C., Sanchez-LaCay, A., & Liebowitz, M. R. (1997). Hispanic Americans. In S. Friedman (Ed.), Cultural issues in the treatment of anxiety (pp. 59–80). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  122. Salman, E., Liebowitz, M. R., Guarnaccia, P. J., Jusino, C. M., Garfinkel, R., Street, L., et al. (1998). Subtypes of ataques de nervios: The influence of coexisting psychiatric diagnosis. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 22, 231–244. doi: 10.1023/A:1005326426885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shannon, M. P., Lonigan, C. J., Finch, A. J., & Taylor, C. M. (1994). Children exposed to disaster: I. Epidemiology of posttraumatic symptoms and symptom profiles. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 33, 80–93. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199401000-00012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Shkodriani, G. M., & Gibbons, J. L. (1995). Individualism and collectivism among university students in Mexico and the United States. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135, 765–772.Google Scholar
  125. Silva de Crane, R., & Spielberger, C. D. (1981). Attitudes of Hispanic, Black, and Caucasian university students toward mental illness. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 3, 241–255.Google Scholar
  126. Silverman, W. K., & Albano, A. M. (1996). The Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children—IV (child and parent versions). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  127. Silverman, W. K., La Greca, A. M., & Wasserstein, S. (1995). What do children worry about? Worries, and their relation to anxiety. Child Development, 66, 671–686. doi: 10.2307/1131942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Silverman, W. K., & Nelles, W. B. (1988). The Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 772–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Silverman, W. K., Saavedra, L. M., & Pina, A. A. (2001). Test-retest reliability of anxiety symptoms and diagnosis with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Child and parent versions. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 937–944. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200108000-00016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Singelis, T. M., Triandis, H. C., Bhuwuk, D., & Gelfand, M. J. (1995). Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism: A theoretical and measurement refinement. Cross-Cultural Research: The Journal of Comparative Social Science, 29, 240–275. doi: 10.1177/106939719502900302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Spielberger, C. D. (1972). Anxiety as an emotional state. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety: Current trends in theory and research (Vol. 1, pp. 23–49). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  132. Spielberger, C. D. (1973). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Red Wood City, California: Mind Garden Inc.Google Scholar
  133. Stoyva, J. (1984). Una estrategia de intervencion de tres sistemas para la modificacion voluntaria de los sintomas de stress. Avances en Psicologia Clinica Latinoamericana, 3, 107–120.Google Scholar
  134. Suarez, L., & Bell-Dolan, D. (2001). The relationship of child worry to cognitive biases: Threat interpretation and likelihood of event occurrence. Behavior Therapy, 32, 425–442. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(01)80029-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Suarez-Morales, L., & Bell, D. (2006). Relation of childhood worry to information-processing factors in an ethnically diverse community sample. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 136–147. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3501_12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Suveg, C., Zeman, J., Flannery-Schroeder, E., & Cassano, M. (2005). Emotion socialization in families of children with an anxiety disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 145–155. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-1823-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Szalacha, L. A., Erkut, S., Coll, C. G., Alarcon, O., Fields, J. P., & Ceder, I. (2003). Discrimination and Puerto Rican children’s and adolescents’ mental health. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9, 141–155. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.9.2.141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Triandis, H. C., Leung, K., Villareal, M. J., & Clack, F. L. (1985). Allocentric versus idiocentric tendencies: Convergent and discriminant validation. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 395–415. doi: 10.1016/0092-6566(85)90008-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Triandis, H. C., Marin, G., Lisansky, J., & Betancourt, H. (1984). Simpatia as a cultural script of Hispanics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1363–1375. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.47.6.1363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. United States Census Bureau. (2009). Statistical abstract of the United States (128th ed.). Retrieved February 16, 2009, from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/.
  141. United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity—a supplement to mental health: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General.Google Scholar
  142. Urdaneta, M. L., Saldana, D. H., & Winkler, A. (1995). Mexican-American perceptions of severe mental illness. Human Organization, 54, 70–77.Google Scholar
  143. van de Vijver, F. J. F., & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross-cultural research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  144. Varela, R. E., & Biggs, K. B. (2006). Reliability and validity of the RCMAS across samples of Mexican, Mexican American, and European American children: A preliminary investigation. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping. International Journal (Toronto, Ont.), 19, 67–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Varela, R. E., Sanchez-Sosa, J. J., Biggs, B. K., & Luis, T. M. (2008). Anxiety symptoms and fears in Hispanic and European American children: Cross-cultural measurement equivalence. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 30, 132–145. doi: 10.1007/s10862-007-9056-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Varela, R. E., Sanchez-Sosa, J. J., Biggs, B. K., & Luis, T. M. (in press). Parenting strategies and socio-cultural influences in childhood anxiety: Mexican, Latin American descent, and European American families. Journal of Anxiety Disorders.Google Scholar
  147. Varela, R. E., Vernberg, E. M., Sanchez-Sosa, J. J., Riveros, A., Mitchell, M., & Mashunkashey, J. (2004). Anxiety reporting and culturally associated interpretation biases and cognitive schemas: A comparison of Mexican, Mexican American, and European American families. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 237–247. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3302_4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Varela, R. E., Weems, C. F., Berman, S. L., Hensley, L., & Rodriguez de Bernal, M. C. (2007). Internalizing symptoms in Latinos: The role of anxiety sensitivity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 429–440. doi: 10.1007/s10964-007-9168-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Vasey, M. W., & Dadds, M. R. (2001). An introduction to the developmental psychopathology of anxiety. In M. W. Vasey & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of anxiety (pp. 3–26). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  150. Vasey, M. W., & MacLeod, C. (2001). Information-processing factors in childhood anxiety: A review and developmental perspective. In M. W. Vasey & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of anxiety (pp. 253–277). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  151. Vega, W. A. (1990). Hispanic families in the 1980s: A decade of research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 1015–1024. doi: 10.2307/353316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Wasserstein, S. B., & LaGreca, A. M. (1998). Hurricane Andrew: Parent conflict as a moderator of children’s adjustment. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 20, 212–224. doi: 10.1177/07399863980202005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Weems, C. F., & Costa, N. M. (2005). Developmental differences in the expression of childhood anxiety symptoms and fears. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 656–663. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000162583.25829.4b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Weems, C. F., Hayward, C., Killen, J., & Taylor, C. B. (2002). A longitudinal investigation of anxiety sensitivity in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 471–477. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.111.3.471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Weiss, D. D., & Last, C. G. (2001). Developmental variations in the prevalence and manifestation of anxiety disorders. In M. W. Vasey & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of anxiety (pp. 27–42). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  156. Weisskirch, R. S., & Alva, S. A. (2002). Language brokering and the acculturation of Latino children. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 24, 369–378. doi: 10.1177/0739986302024003007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Weisz, J. R., Sigman, M., Weiss, B., & Mosk, J. (1993a). Parent reports of behavioral and emotional problems among children in Kenya, Thailand, and the United States. Child Development, 64, 98–109. doi: 10.2307/1131439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Weisz, J. R., Suwanlert, S., Chaiyasit, W., & Walter, B. R. (1987). Over-and undercontrolled referral problems among children and adolescents from Thailand and the United States: The Wat and Wai of cultural differences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 719–726. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.55.5.719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Weisz, J. R., Suwanlert, S., Chaiyasit, W., Weiss, B., Achenbach, T. M., & Eastman, B. R. (1993b). Behavioral and emotional problems among Thai and American adolescents: Parent reports for ages 12–16. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 395–403. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.102.3.395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Weisz, J. R., Weiss, B., Suwanlert, S., & Chaiyasit, W. (2006). Culture and youth psychopathology: Testing the syndromal sensitivity model in Thai and American adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 1098–1107. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.6.1098.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Whaley, A. L. (1997). Ethnic and racial differences in perceptions of dangerousness of persons with mental illness. Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.), 48, 1328–1330.Google Scholar
  162. Wood, J. J., McLeod, B. D., Sigman, M., Hwang, W., & Chu, B. C. (2003). Parenting and childhood anxiety: Theory, empirical findings, and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 134–151. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA

Personalised recommendations