Adjustment of High School Dropouts in Closed Religious Communities
- 53 Downloads
While extensive research has been done on high-school dropouts’ adjustment, there is little data on dropouts from closed religious communities.
This study examines the contribution of personal and social resources to the adjustment of high school dropouts in Ultraorthodox Jewish communities in Israel.
Using a randomized design, the research population included 261 Ultraorthodox Jewish male youths, ages 14–21 (M = 17, SD = 1.71), who were at different stages of the dropout process. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the direct and indirect effects between the various stages of the dropout process, social and personal resources, and adjustment.
Students in high school or in a program for high school dropouts showed higher levels of loneliness and lower levels of involvement and representation in the peer group than did dropouts. However, higher levels of personal and social resources were found among students than among dropouts. Furthermore, sense of community was found to be a protective factor for positive adjustment only for students, while for dropouts it seemed to constitute a risk factor.
The findings expose the highly complex situation of at-risk youths in the Ultraorthodox Jewish community. Efforts to keep them in the community’s educational frameworks seem to create pressure and put these youths at risk. At the same time, the poor resources of youths who do not stay in the community`s educational frameworks may lower their positive adjustment. Implications for promoting positive adjustment are discussed.
KeywordsHigh school dropout Religious community Adjustment Personal and social resources
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of Bar-Ilan University’s institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments. The study received ethical approval from Bar-Ilan University’s Institutional Review Board.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unraveling the mystery of health. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Aristilde, M. V. (2006). A metamorphosis: An examination of protective factors and resilient outcomes of at-risk youth enrolled within an alternative education setting. New Jersy: Fairleigh Dickinson University.Google Scholar
- Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.Google Scholar
- Belfield, C., & Levin, H. M. (Eds.). (2007). The price we pay: Economic and social consequences of inadequate education. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
- Bowers, H. S. (1998). Value-oriented teaching in a contemporary Indiana Amish parochial school: preparation for adult life through faith, responsible behaviour, and community interaction. International Journal of Educational Reform, 7(3), 243–254.Google Scholar
- Bradley, J. (1997). Runaway youth: Stress, social support, and adjustment. New York: Garland Publishing.Google Scholar
- Brage, D., Meredith, W., & Woodward, J. (1993). Correlates of loneliness among mid-western adolescent. Adolescence, 28(111), 685–693. doi:http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.athensams.net/docview/195925501?accountid=14483.
- Braun-Lewensohn, O., Sagy, S., Sabato, H., & Galili, R. (2013). Sense of coherence and sense of community as coping resources of religious adolescents before and after the disengagement from the Gaza STRIP. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 50(2), 110–117. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/openview/a1606240170f3b557122de58eec85586/1?pq-origsite=gscholar.
- Brown, B. B., & Larson, J. (2009). Peer relationships in adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 74–103). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. doi: 10.1002/9780470479193.adlpsy002004.
- Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS—Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associations.Google Scholar
- Causey, K. A. (2002). Getting to work: Factors influencing sustained work performance by high-risk youth. Colorado: University of Colorado at Denver.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
- Conger, R., & Ge, X. (1999). Conflict and cohesion in parent–adolescent relations: Changes in emotional expression from early to mid-adolescence. In M. J. Cox & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), The advances in family research series (pp. 185–206). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
- Dillon, C. O. (2004). Navigating disrupted transitions from adolescence to adulthood: Cumulative adversity, social capital, and psychosocial outcomes. Boston, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Boston.Google Scholar
- Durkheim, E. (1984) . The division of labor in society. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Felder-Freund, C. (2007). Improving our relationships to our selves. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 10(2), 38–40.Google Scholar
- Finkelman, Y. (2011). Ultra-Orthodox/Haredi education. In H. Miller, L. Grant & A. Pomson (Eds.), International handbook of Jewish education (pp. 1063–1080). Springer: Netherlands. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-0354-4.
- Fitzpatrick, K. M., Piko, B. F., Wright, D. R., & LaGory, M. (2005). Depressive symptomatology, exposure to violence, and the role of social capital among African American adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75(2), 262–274. Retrived from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0002-94126.96.36.1992.
- Fukuyama, F. (2001). Social capital, civil society and development. Third World Quarterly, 22(1), 7–20. Retrived from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713701144.
- Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1985). Children’s perceptions of the personal relationships in their social networks. Developmental psychology, 21(6), 1016–1024. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.526.
- Golos, A., Sarid, M., Weill, M., Yochman, A., & Weintraub, N. (2011). The influence of environmental factors on the development of ultra-orthodox preschool boys in Israel. Occupational Therapy International, 18(3), 142–151. doi: 10.1002/oti.317.
- Grilak, M. (2002). The ultra-orthodox: Who really are we?. Jerusalem: Keter Publication.Google Scholar
- Grootaert, C., Narayan, D., Jones, V. N., & Woolcock, M. (2003). Measuring social capital: An integrated questionnaire. In World Bank working paper, 18. Washington: The World Bank.Google Scholar
- Gurevich, N., & Cohen-Castro, E. (2004). Geographical distribution of demographic characteristics, social and economic of the Haredi population in 1996–2001. Jerusalem: Central Statistical Bureau in Israel.Google Scholar
- Hakak, Y. (2005). Man in black—journey to the Israeli politics. Jerusalem, Israel: The Israeli democracy institute.Google Scholar
- Hassan, S. Z., Rahman, S. M. A., Sarker, M. H., & Shila, A. B. (2016). Effectuality of community social capital inreducing dropuot in primary education. European Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 4(7), 1–12.Google Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics (2016). Data of population.Google Scholar
- Itzhaki, Y. (2009). Communal and personal aspects of youth drop-out in the ultra orthodox sector. Unpublished master dissertation, School of Social Work, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Hebrew).Google Scholar
- Janosz, M., Le Blanc, M., Boulerice, B., & Tremblay, R. E. (2000). Predicting different types of school dropouts: A typological approach with two longitudinal samples. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(1), 171–190. doi: 10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.206.
- Jessor, R., Turbin, M. S., & Costa, F. M. (1998). Risk and protection in successful outcomes among disadvantaged adolescents. Applied-Developmental-Science, 2(4), 194–208. doi: 10.1207/s1532480xads0204_3.
- Kelly, A. (2014). Risk characteristics, religion and gender among Ultra-Orthodox youth—An ecological model. In E. Gruppper & S. Romi (Eds.), Children and youth at risk situation in Israel (Vol. 1, pp. 190–212). Tel Aviv (Hebrew): Mofet.Google Scholar
- Lahav, H. (2005). Processes and changes in the characteristics of Ultraorthodox at-risk youth, who received treatment from the welfare department. From Disengagement to Integration, 13, 49–78. (Hebrew).Google Scholar
- Lin, N. (2001). Building a network theory of social capital. In N. Lin, K. Cook, & R. S. Burt (Eds.), Social capital—theory and research (pp. 3–33). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Magnusson, D. (1999). Holistic interactionism: A perspective for research on personalitydevelopment. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 219–247). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Mahoney, J. L., & Cairns, R. B. (1997). Do extracurricular activities protect against early school dropout?. Developmental Psychology, 33(2), 241–253. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.11.
- Margolese, F. (2005). Off the derech: Why observant Jews leave Judaism: How to respond to the challenge. Jerusalem: Devora Publishing.Google Scholar
- McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6–23. Retrieved from: http://mc7290.bgsu.wikispaces.net/file/view/McMillan_1986.pdf.
- Metz, K. (2006). Factors contributing to locus of control and self-concept in adolescents who are hearing-impaired and their relationships to young adult outcomes. Kentucky: University of Kentucky.Google Scholar
- Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (2000). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Motivational science: Social and personality perspectives (pp. 150–176). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2013). Mplus 7.11. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Niels, J. B. (2008). Introduction to structural equation modeling using SPSS and AMOS. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Perkins, D. D., & Long, A. (2002). Neighborhood sense of community and social capital. In A. T. Fisher, C. C. Sonn, & B. J. Bishop (Eds.), Psychological sense of community: Research, applications, and implications. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
- Pettit, G. S., Erath, S. A., Lansford, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Bates, J. E. (2011). Dimensions of social capital and life adjustment in the transition to early adulthood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35(6), 482–489. doi: 10.1177/0165025411422995.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Phillips, R. F. (2010). Initiatives to support disadvantaged young people: Enhancing social capital and acknowledging personal capital. Journal of Youth Studies, 13(4), 489–504. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13676260903522494.
- Pretty, G. M. H., Conroy, C., Dugay, J., Fowler, K., & Williams, D. (1996). Sense of community and its relevance to adolescents of all ages. Journal of Community Psychology, 24(4), 365–379. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6629(199610)24:4<365:AIDJCOP6>3.0.CO;2-T.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Putnam, R. D. (2001). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
- Royal, M. A., & Rossi, R. J. (1996). Individual level correlates of sense of community: Findings from workplace and school. Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 395–416. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)15206629(199610)24:4<395:AID-JCOP8>3.0.CO;2-T.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rumberger, R., & Lim, S. A. (2008). Why students drop out of school: A review of 25 years of research (p. 15). Policy Brief: California Dropout Research Project.Google Scholar
- Sebba, L., & Shirrer, V. (1998). Tradition and the right to education: The case of ultra-orthodox community in Israel. In G. Douglas & L. Sebba (Eds.), Childrn’s right and traditional values (pp. 160–194). Darmtomonth: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Sharabi, A., & Margalit, M. (2010). The mediating role of internet connection, virtual friends, and mood in predicting loneliness among students with and without learning disabilities in different educational environments. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(3), 215–227. doi: 10.1177/0022219409357080.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sum, A., Harrington, P., Bartishevich, C., Fogg, N., Khatiwada, I., Motroni, J., Trub’skyy, M. (2003). The hidden crisis in the high school dropout problems of young adults in the U.S.: Recent trends in overall school dropout rates and gender differences in dropout behavior. Boston, MA: Center for Labor Market Studies, Northeastern University.Google Scholar
- Suwanakul, S. (2009). The determinants of noneconomic factors affecting economic growth. Journal of the American Academy of Business, 15(1), 104–109.Google Scholar
- Tam, W. M. (2011). Hidden school disengagement and its relationship to youth risk behaviors in Hong Kong. Educational Research Journal, 26(2), 175–197.Google Scholar
- Tartakovsky, E. (2010). Children of perestroika: The changing socioeconomic conditions in Russia and Ukraine and their effect on the psychological well-being of high-school adolescents. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(1), 25–37. doi: 10.1007/s00127-009-0037-1.
- Weiisbley, A. (2013). The educational system in Israel. Retrieved from http://www.knesset.gov.il/mmm/data/pdf/m03160.pdf.
- Winograd-Jean, T. (2005). Estrangement from religion among adolescents: personal, family, educational and community factors. Unpublished master dissertation, School of Education, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Hebrew).Google Scholar
- Yogev, Y. (2012). The correlation between the personal, the familial, and the communal profile of Ultraorthodox dropout youth. From Disengagement to Integration, 17, 97–121. (Hebrew).Google Scholar
- Yogev, Y., & Assaf, A. (2002). Values dilemmas in youth practitioner’s work in the Ultraorthodox sector. From Disengagement to Integration, 11, 100–114. (Hebrew).Google Scholar
- Youniss, J., & Smollar, J. (1985). Adolescent relations with mothers, fathers, and friends. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar