Advertisement

Child & Youth Care Forum

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 19–33 | Cite as

Acculturation Dissonance, Acculturation Strategy, Depressive Symptoms, and Delinquency in Latina/o Adolescents

  • Andrew L. Frazer
  • Sonia Rubens
  • Michelle Johnson-Motoyama
  • Moneika DiPierro
  • Paula J. Fite
Original Paper

Abstract

Background

Two risk factors for negative outcomes in Latina/o youth are acculturation dissonance (i.e., discrepant family cultural orientations) and the endorsement of an assimilation strategy of acculturation (i.e., valuing dominant mainstream culture over culture of origin). Though these have been uniquely studied as risk factors for maladaptive behaviors among Latina/o youth, their interaction in relation to both externalizing and internalizing symptoms has yet to be fully examined.

Objective

The present study examined the unique and interactive effects of acculturation dissonance and assimilation on both depressive symptoms and delinquent behaviors among Latina/o adolescents.

Methods

Participants were 135 Latina/o adolescents (ages 14–20) recruited from a charter high school. Students responded to a paper-and-pencil survey assessing demographic information, acculturation strategy, acculturation dissonance, depressive symptoms, and delinquency.

Results

Acculturation dissonance was uniquely associated with depressive symptoms, but interaction effects suggested this association depended on levels of assimilation. At high levels of assimilation, acculturation dissonance was not associated with depressive symptoms, since depressive symptoms were consistently high. In contrast, at low levels of assimilation, acculturation dissonance was positively associated with depressive symptoms. In contrast, acculturation dissonance was uniquely associated with delinquency, and this association did not depend on the level of assimilation.

Conclusions

Dissonant cultural orientations within families of Latina/o youth confer risk for negative outcomes across internalizing and externalizing domains. For youth adopting an assimilation strategy of acculturation, risk for depressive symptoms may be increased. Implications of these findings and future directions are discussed.

Keywords

Acculturation dissonance Latina/o youth Acculturation strategy Youth depression 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
  2. Alegría, M., Sribney, W., Woo, M., Torres, M., & Guarnaccia, P. (2007). Looking beyond nativity: The relation of age of immigration, length of residence, and birth cohorts to the risk of onset of psychiatric disorders for Latina/os. Research in Human Development, 4, 19–47.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Bamaca-Colbert, M. Y., Umana-Taylor, A. J., & Gayles, J. G. (2012). A developmental-contextual model of depressive symptoms in Mexican-origin female adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 406–421. doi: 10.1037/a0025666.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Berry, J. W. (1980). Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. In A. Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models and findings (pp. 9–25). Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  5. Berry, J. W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(6), 697–712. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.07.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Minde, T., & Mok, D. (1987). Comparative studies of acculturative stress. International Migration Review, 21, 491–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Breslau, J., Borges, G., Hagar, Y., Tancredi, D., & Gilman, S. (2009). Immigration to the USA and risk for mood and anxiety disorders: Variation by origin and age at immigration. Psychological Medicine, 39(7), 1117–1127. doi: 10.1017/S0033291708004698.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Colby, S. L., & Ortman, J. M. (2015). Projections of the size and composition of the US population: 2014–2060: Population estimates and projections. Current Population Reports. Washington DC: US Census Bureau. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2015/demo/p25-1143.pdf.
  9. Elder, J. P., Broyles, S. L., Brennan, J. J., Zuniga de Nuncio, M. L., & Nader, P. R. (2005). Acculturation, parent-child acculturation differential, and chronic disease risk factors in a Mexican-American population. Journal of Immigrant Health, 7(1), 1–9. doi: 10.1007/s10903-005-1385-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ennis, S. R., Rios-Vargas, M., & Albert, N. G. (2011). The Hispanic population: 2010. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  11. Fergusson, D. M., Woodward, L. J., & Horwood, L. J. (1999). Childhood peer relationship problems and young people’s involvement with deviant peers in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27(5), 357–369. doi: 10.1023/A:1021923917494.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fosados, R., McClain, A., Ritt-Olson, A., Sussman, S., Soto, D., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., & Unger, J. B. (2007). The influence of acculturation on drug and alcohol use in a sample of adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 32(12), 2990–3004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Garcia Coll, C., & Marks, A. K. (2011). The immigrant paradox in children and adolescents: Is becoming American a developmental risk?. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  14. Gfoerer, J. C., & Tan, L. L. (2003). Substance use among foreign-born youths in the United States: Does the length of residence matter? American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1892–1895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gonzales, N. A., Deardorff, J., Formoso, D., Barr, A., & Barrera, M., Jr. (2006). Family mediators of the relation between acculturation and adolescent mental health. Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 55(3), 318–330. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2006.00405.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Greenman, E., & Xie, Y. (2008). Is assimilation theory dead? The effect of assimilation on adolescent well-being. Social Science Research, 37, 109–137.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Gunlicks-Stoessel, M., Mufson, L., Cullen, K. R., & Klimes-Dougan, B. (2013). A pilot study of depressed adolescents’ cortisol patterns during parent–adolescent conflict and response to interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A). Journal of Affective Disorders, 150(3), 1125–1128. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.037.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim, S. Y., Chen, Q., Li, J., Huang, X., & Moon, U. J. (2009). Parent–child acculturation, parenting, and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese immigrant families. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(3), 426–437. doi: 10.1037/a0016019.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Lau, A. S., McCabe, K. M., Yeh, M., Garland, A. F., Wood, P. A., & Hough, R. L. (2005). The acculturation gap-distress hypothesis among high-risk Mexican American families. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 367–375.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Le, T. N., & Stockdale, G. (2008). Acculturative dissonance, ethnic identity, and youth violence. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14(1), 1–9. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.14.1.1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Lorenzo-Blanco, E., Unger, J. B., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., Ritt-Olson, A., & Soto, D. (2012). Acculturation, enculturation, and symptoms of depression in Hispanic youth: The roles of gender, Hispanic cultural values, and family functioning. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(10), 1350–1365. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9774-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Marsiglia, F. F., & Waller, M. (2002). Language preference and drug use among Southwestern Mexican American school students. Children and Schools, 24, 145–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nielsen, A. L., & Ford, J. A. (2001). Drinking patterns among Hispanic adolescents: Results from a national household survey. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 62, 448–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (1996). Immigrant America (2nd ed.). Berkely: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Rubens, S. L., Fite, P. J., Gabrielli, J., Evans, S. C., Hendrickson, M. L., & Pederson, C. A. (2013). Examining relations between negative life events, time spent in the United States, language use, and mental health outcomes in Latina/o adolescents. Child and Youth Care Forum, 42(5), 389–402. doi: 10.1007/s10566-013-9205-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sam, D. L., & Vitra, E. (2003). Intergenerational value discrepancies in immigrant and host-national families and their impact on psychological adaptation. Journal of Adolescence, 26, 213–231.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Saulsberry, A., Corden, M. E., Taylor-Crawford, K., Crawford, T. J., Johnson, M., Froemel, J., & Van Voorhees, B. W. (2013). Chicago urban resiliency building (CURB): An internet-based depression-prevention intervention for urban African-American and Latina/o adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22(1), 150–160. doi: 10.1007/s10826-012-9627-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Zamboanga, B. L., & Szapocznik, J. (2010). Rethinking the concept of acculturation: Implications for theory and research. American Psychologist, 65(4), 237–251. doi: 10.1037/a0019330.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Schwartz, S. J., Des Rosiers, S., Huang, S., Zamboanga, B. L., Unger, J. B., Knight, G. P., & Szapocznik, J. (2013). Developmental trajectories of acculturation in Hispanic adolescents: Associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behavior. Child Development, 84(4), 1355–1372.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Suárez-Orozco, C., Rhodes, J., & Milburn, M. (2009). Unraveling the immigrant paradox academic engagement and disengagement among recently arrived immigrant youth. Youth and Society, 41, 151–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Szalacha, L. A., Erkut, S., Coll, C. G., Alarcón, O., Fields, J. P., & Ceder, I. (2003). Discrimination and puerto rican children’s and adolescents’ mental health. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9(2), 141–155. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.9.2.141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Szapocznik, J., & Kurtines, W. M. (1993). Family psychology and cultural diversity: Opportunities for theory, research, and application. American Psychologist, 48(4), 400–407. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.42.1.37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Szapocznik, J., Santisteban, D., Kurtines, W., Perez-Vidal, A., & Hervis, O. (1984). Bicultural effectiveness training: A treatment intervention for enhancing intercultural adjustment in Cuban American families. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 6(4), 317–344. doi: 10.1177/07399863840064001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Telzer, E. H. (2010). Expanding the acculturation gap-distress model: An integrative review of research. Human Development, 53(6), 313–340. doi: 10.1159/000322476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tseng, V., & Fuligni, A. J. (2000). Parent-adolescent language use and relationships among immigrant families with east asian, filipino and latin american backgrounds. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62(2), 465–476. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00465.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Updegraff, K. A. (2007). Latina/o adolescents’ mental health: Exploring the interrelations among discrimination, ethnic identity, cultural orientation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Adolescence, 30(4), 549–567. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.08.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Unger, J. B., Cruz, T. B., Rohrbach, L. A., Ribisl, K. M., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., Chen, X., Trinidad, D. R., & Johnson, C. A. (2000). English language use as a risk factor for smoking initiation among Hispanic and Asian American adolescents: Evidence for mediation by tobacco-related beliefs and social norms. Health Psychology, 19(5), 403–410. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.19.5.403.
  38. Unger, J. B., Gallaher, P., Shakib, S., Ritt-Olson, A., Palmer, P. H., & Johnson, C. A. (2002). The AHIMSA acculturation scale: A new measure of acculturation for adolescents in a multicultural society. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 22(3), 225–251. doi: 10.1177/02731602022003001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vega, W. A., & Sribney, W. M. (2008). Latina/o population demographics, risk factors, and depression: A case study of the Mexican American prevalence and services survey. In S. A. Aguilar-Gaxiola & P. Thomas (Eds.), Depression in Latina/os: Assessment, treatment, and prevention (pp. 29–52). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vega, W. A., Sribney, W. M., Gaxiola, Aguilar-, & Kolody, B. (2004). 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders among Mexican Americans: Nativity, social assimilation, and age determinants. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 532–541.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Warheit, G. J., Vega, W. A., Khoury, E. L., Gil, A. G., & Elfenbein, P. R. (1996). A comparative analysis of cigarette, alcohol, and illicit drug use among an ethnically diverse sample of Hispanic, African American, and non-Hispanic White adolescents. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 901–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Weaver, S. R., & Kim, S. Y. (2008). A person-centered approach to studying the linkages among parent-child differences in cultural orientation, supportive parenting, and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese American families. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(1), 36–49. doi: 10.1007/s10964-007-9221-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Williams, C. L., & Berry, J. W. (1991). Primary prevention of acculturative stress among refugees: Application of psychological theory and practice. American Psychologist, 46, 632–641.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew L. Frazer
    • 1
  • Sonia Rubens
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  • Michelle Johnson-Motoyama
    • 4
  • Moneika DiPierro
    • 1
  • Paula J. Fite
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinical Child Psychology ProgramUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA
  2. 2.Dana-Farber Cancer InstituteBostonUSA
  3. 3.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  4. 4.School of Social WelfareUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyUniversity of New OrleansNew OrleansUSA

Personalised recommendations