Advertisement

Child & Youth Care Forum

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 211–225 | Cite as

The Berkeley Puppet Interview: A Screening Instrument for Measuring Psychopathology in Young Children

  • Lisanne L. Stone
  • Carlijn van Daal
  • Marloes van der Maten
  • Rutger C. M. E. Engels
  • Jan M. A. M. Janssens
  • Roy Otten
Original Paper

Abstract

Background

While child self-reports of psychopathology are increasingly accepted, little standardized instruments are utilized for these practices. The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) is an age-appropriate instrument for self-reports of problem behavior by young children.

Objective

Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the BPI will be reported, specifically, test–retest reliability, intra-class correlations, congruent and concurrent validity.

Methods

In a sample of 300 children (M age = 7.04 years, SD = 1.15), the BPI was administered twice, with a 1-year interval. Parents and teachers filled out questionnaires about their children’s problem behavior.

Results

Findings from the analyses indicate that the BPI subscales have sufficient test–retest reliability and can be reliably coded. Furthermore, findings suggest adequate congruent validity. More support for concurrent validity is found among externalizing problems in comparison to internalizing problems.

Conclusions

With regard to the present study, the BPI seems to have adequate psychometric properties. As such, the BPI enables interviewing young children about their psychopathology-related symptoms in a standardized way. The BPI could be applied in clinical practice as a complement to the diagnostic cycle, allowing children’s self-reports to play an increasingly important role.

Keywords

Berkeley Puppet Interview Psychometric properties Screening instrument Self-report 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was granted by the Dutch Organization for Health Research and Care Innovation (ZonMW: 80-82435-98-8026).

References

  1. Ablow, J. C., Measelle, J. R., Kraemer, H. C., Harrington, R., Luby, J., Smider, N., et al. (1999). The MacArthur three-city outcome study: Evaluating multi-informant measures of young children’s symptomatology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(12), 1580–1590. doi: 10.1097/00004583-19991200-00020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlation for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 213–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
  4. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
  5. Achenbach, T. M., & Ruffle, T. M. (2000). The child behavior checklist and related forms for assessing behavioral/emotional problems and competencies. Pediatrics in Review, 21, 265–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ansary, N. S., & Luthar, S. S. (2009). Distress and academic achievement among adolescent of affluence: A study of externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors and school performance. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 319–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arseneault, L., Kim-Cohen, J., Taylor, A., Caspi, A., & Moffit, T. E. (2005). Psychometric evaluation of 5- and 7-year old children’s self-reports of conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 537–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bayer, J. K., Rapee, R. M., Hiscock, H., Ukourmunne, O. C., Mihalopoulos, C., & Wake, M. (2011). Translational research to prevent internalizing problems early in childhood. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 50–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bayer, J. K., & Sanson, A. V. (2003). Preventing the development of emotional mental health problems from early childhood: recent advances in the field. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 5, 4–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhatia, S. K., & Bhatia, S. C. (2007). Childhood and adolescent depression. American Academy of Family Physicians, 75, 73–80.Google Scholar
  11. Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., Chiappetta, L., Bridge, J., Monga, S., & Baugher, M. (1999). Psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): A replication study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1230–1236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carter, A. S., Wagmiller, R. J., Gray, S. A. O., McCarthy, K. J., Horwitz, S. M., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2010). Prevalence of DSM-IV disorder in a representative, healthy birth cohort at school entry: Sociodemographic risks and sociale adapation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 686–698.Google Scholar
  13. Cicchetti, D. V., Koenig, K., Klin, A., Volkmar, F. R., Paul, R., & Sparrow, S. (2011). From Bayes through marginal utility to effect sizes: A guide to understanding the clinical and statistical significance of the results of autism research findings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 168–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1998). The development of depression in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 53, 221–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorder in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 837–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Los Reyes, A., & Kazdin, A. E. (2005a). Informant discrepancies in the assessment of childhood psychopathology: A critical review, theoretical framework, and recommendations for further study. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 483–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. De Los Reyes, A., & Kazdin, A. E. (2005b). Informant discrepancies in the assessment of childhood psychopathology: A critical review, theoretical framework, and recommendations for further study. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 483–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Egger, H. L., & Angold, A. (2006). Common emotional and behavioral disorders in preschool children: Presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 313–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Show me the child at seven: The consequences of conduct problems in childhood for psychosocial functioning in adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 837–849.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goodman, R., Ford, T., Simmons, H., Gatward, R., & Meltzer, H. (2000). Using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to screen for child psychiatric disorders in a community sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 534–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harter, S. (1982). The perceived competence scale for children. Child Development, 53, 87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hill, L. G., Lochman, J. E., Coie, J. D., & Greenberg, M. T. (2004). Effectiveness of early screening for externalizing problems: Issues of screening accuracy and utility. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 809–820.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ialongo, N. S., Edelsohn, G., & Kellam, S. G. (2001). A further look at the prognostic power of young children’s reports of depressed mood and feelings. Child Development, 72, 736–747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jaddoe, V. W., van Duijn, C. M., Franco, O. H., van der Heijden, A. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., de Jongste, J. C., et al. (2012). The Generation R Study: Design and cohort update 2012. European Journal of Epidemiology, 27, 739–756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kim, T. E., Guerra, N. G., & Williams, K. R. (2008). Preventing youth problem behaviors and enhancing physical health by promoting core competencies. Journal of Adolescent Health, 43, 401–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klein, D. N., Dougherty, L. R., & Olino, T. M. (2005). Toward guidelines for evidence-based assessment of depression in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 412–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kovacs, M. (2001). Children’s depression inventory (CDI). North Tonawanda, NY: Multi Health Systems Inc.Google Scholar
  28. Kraemer, H. C., Measelle, J. R., Ablow, J. C., Essex, M. J., Boyce, W. T., & Kupfer, D. J. (2003). A new approach to integrating data from multiple informants in psychiatric assessment and research: Mixing and matching contexts and perspectives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1566–1577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kroes, G., Veerman, J. W., & De Bruyn, E. E. J. (2003). Bias in parental reports? Maternal psychopathology and the reporting of problem behavior in clinic-referred children. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 19, 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kuijpers, R. C. W. M., Otten, R., Krol, N. P. C. M., Vermulst, A. A., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2013). The reliability and validity of the Dominic Interactive: A computerized child report instrument for mental health problems. Child & Youth Care Forum, 1, 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lavigne, J. V., LeBailly, S. A., Hopkins, J., Gouze, K. R., & Binns, H. J. (2009). The prevalence of ADHD, ODD, depression, and anxiety in a community simple of 4-year olds. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38, 315–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Luby, J. L. (2010). Preschool depression: The importance of identification of depression early in development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 91–95.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Luby, J. L., Belden, A., Sullivan, J., & Spitznagel, E. (2007). Preschoolers’ contribution to their diagnosis of depression and anxiety: Uses and limitations of young child self-report of symptoms. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 38, 321–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Luby, J. L., Si, X., Belden, A. C., Tandon, M., & Spitznagel, E. (2009). Preschool depression: Homotypic continuity and course over 24 months. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 897–905.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mash, E. J., & Hunsley, J. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of child and adolescent disorders: Issues and challenges. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 362–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Measelle, J. R., Ablow, J. C., Cowan, P. A., & Cowan, C. P. (1998). Assessing young children’s views of their academic, social and emotional lives: An evaluation of the self-perception scales of the Berkeley Puppet Interview. Child Development, 69, 1556–1676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Merikangas, K. R., He, J., Burstein, M., Swendsden, J., Avenevoli, S., Case, B., et al. (2011). Service utilization for lifetime mental disorder in U.S. adolescents: Results of the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 32–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Morcillo, C., Duarte, C. S., Sala, R., Wang, S., Lejuez, C. W., Kerridge, B., et al. (2011). Conduct disorder and adult psychiatric diagnoses: Associations and gender differences in the U.S. adult population. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46, 323–330.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Sessa, F. M., Avenevoli, S., & Essex, S. J. (2002). Temperamental vulnerability and negative parenting as interacting predictors of child adjustment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 461–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mutsaers, K. (2009). Het herkennen en diagnosticeren van depressieve stoornissen. Retrieved, August 20, 2012, from http://www.nji.nl/nji/dossierDownloads/Instrumenten%20depressie.pdf.
  41. O’Neill, K. A., Conner, B. T., & Kendall, P. C. (2011). Internalizing disorders and substance use disorders in youth: Comorbidity, risk, temporal order, and implications for intervention. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 104–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reef, J., Diamantopoulous, S., Van Meurs, I., Verhulst, F., & Van der Ende, J. (2010). Predicting adult emotional and behavioral problems from externalizing problem trajectories in a 24-year longitudinal study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 577–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ringoot, A. P., Jansen, P. W., Steenweg-de Graaff, J., Measelle, J. R., Van der Ende, J., Raat, H., et al. (2013). Young children’s self-reported emotional, behavioral and peer problems: The Berkeley Puppet Interview. Psychological Assessment. doi: 10.1037/a0033976.
  44. Rubin, K. H., & Mills, R. S. L. (1990). Maternal beliefs about adaptive and maladaptive social behaviors in normal, aggressive, and withdrawn preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 419–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Scheeringa, M. S., & Haslett, N. (2010). The reliability and criterion validity of the diagnostic infant and preschool assessment: A new diagnostic instrument for young children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41, 299–312.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Scheeringa, M. S., & Zeanah, C. H. (2008). Reconsideration of Harm’s way: Onsets and comorbidity patterns of disorders in preschool children and their caregivers following hurricane Katrina. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37, 508–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stone, L. L., Giletta, M., Brendgen, M., Otten, R., Engels, R. C. M. E., & Janssens, J. M. A. M. (2013a). Friendship similarities in internalizing problems in early childhood. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 210–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stone, L. L., Otten, R., Janssens, J. M. A. M., Soenens, B., Kuntsche, E., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2013b). Does parental psychological control relate to internalizing problems in early childhood? An examination sing the Berkeley Puppet Interview. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 37, 309–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Valla, J. P. (2000). Instruction manual for the Dominic Interactive. In J. P. Valla (Ed.), The Dominic Interactive. DIMAT: Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  50. Van Leeuwen, H. M. P. (2002). Het diagnostisch interview met het kind. In T. Kievit, J. A. Tak, & J. D. Bosch (Red.), Handboek psychodiagnostiek voor de hulpverlening aan kinderen (pp. 125–144). Utrecht: De Tijdstroom.Google Scholar
  51. van Widenfelt, B. M., Goedhart, A. W., Treffers, P. D. A., & Goodman, R. (2003). Dutch version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 12, 281–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Verhulst, F. C., Van der Ende, J., & Koot, H. M. (1997). Handleiding voor de Teacher’s Report Form (TRF). Rotterdam: Afdeling Kinder- en Jeugdpsychiatrie, Sophia Kinderziekenhuis/Erasmus MC.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisanne L. Stone
    • 1
  • Carlijn van Daal
    • 2
  • Marloes van der Maten
    • 1
  • Rutger C. M. E. Engels
    • 1
  • Jan M. A. M. Janssens
    • 1
  • Roy Otten
    • 1
  1. 1.Behavioural Science InstituteRadboud University NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Pluryn NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations