Autophagy is a conserved lysosomal degradation process, and abnormal autophagy has been associated with various pathological processes, e.g., neurodegeneration, cancer, and pathogen infection. Small chemical modulators of autophagy show the potential to treat autophagy-associated diseases. Diterpenoids, nature products found in various plants, exhibit a wide range of bioactivity, and we have recently isolated and characterized over 150 diterpenoids from Isodon species distributed in China. Here, we applied a high-content fluorescence imaging-based assay to assess these diterpenoids’ ability to affect autophagic flux in HeLa cells. We found that enanderinanin J, an ent-kauranoid dimer, is an autophagy inhibitor, manifested by its ability to increase lysosomal pH and inhibit the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes. Autophagy has been shown to be either positively or negatively involved in the life cycle of Zika virus (ZIKV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Dengue virus (DENV), and enterovirus-A71 (EV-A71). We found that enanderinanin J significantly inhibited the infection of ZIKV, DENV, JEV, or EV-A71. Interestingly, although ATG5 knockdown inhibited ZIKV or JEV infection, enanderinanin J further inhibited the infection of ZIKV or JEV in ATG5-knockdown cells. Taken together, our data indicate that enanderinanin J inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion and is a potential antiviral agent.
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acetonide of Rubescensin J
microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3
green fluorescence protein
red fluorescence protein
Japanese encephalitis virus
- (+)ss RNA viruses:
positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses
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This work was supported by the CAS-Croucher Funding Scheme (JY), Hong Kong Research Grant Council (RGC) grants (11101717 and 11103620 to JY), NSFC (21778045 and 32070702 to JY and 81673329 to TP), Shenzhen government research grant (JCYJ20160229165235739 and JCYJ20170413141331470 to JY), Sichuan Science and Technology Program (# 2019YJ063 to JY), and the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research (STEP) program (2019QZKK0502 to TP).
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Huang, L., Fu, Q., Dai, JM. et al. High-content screening of diterpenoids from Isodon species as autophagy modulators and the functional study of their antiviral activities. Cell Biol Toxicol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10565-021-09580-6
- Enanderinanin J
- Dengue virus (DENV)
- Zika virus (ZIKV)
- Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)
- Enterovirus-A71 (EV-A71)