Catalysis Surveys from Asia

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 117–137 | Cite as

Synergism of Clay and Heteropoly Acids as Nano-Catalysts for the Development of Green Processes with Potential Industrial Applications


A large number of inorganic oxides, mixed oxides, including alumina, silica, titania, zirconia, zeolites, carbon, clays and ion exchange resins have been employed as both supports and solid acid catalysts. Clay structure collapses at high temperatures and has to be stablilized. The thermal stability and pore size issues were addressed by pillaring of clays. Natural clays are acid treated or ion-exchanged to be used as solid acids, and the acidity and pore structure are dependent on the treatment methodology. Another important class of catalysts is the heteropoly acids (HPA), which are employed as homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts, having both acid and redox properties. The focus of the current paper is to address the work done in our laboratory on the synergism between clays and heteropoly acids for the development of green processes. A comparison is also provided for the activity of these catalysts with other solid acids. Several alkylation, acylation, isomerization, condensation, dehydration, esterification, nitration and oxidation reactions which are useful in a wide spectrum of industries such as bulk, intermediates, dyes, plasticizer, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, flavours and other fine chemicals were investigated to improve the selectivity of the desired products.


Clay Zirconia Zeolite Nitration Mixed Oxide 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, University Institute of Chemical Technology (UICT)University of MumbaiMatunga, MumbaiIndia

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