Catalysis Letters

, Volume 117, Issue 3–4, pp 153–158 | Cite as

Zirconium sulfate supported on activated carbon as catalyst for esterification of oleic acid by n-butanol under solvent-free conditions

  • Joon Ching Juan
  • Jingchang Zhang
  • Yajie Jiang
  • Weiliang Cao
  • Mohd Ambar Yarmo


It has been shown that the activated carbon-supported zirconium sulfate (ZS) is an efficient solid catalyst for the esterification of oleic acid by n-butanol under solvent-free condition. The effect of mole ratio of the reactant, time and catalyst loading on the conversion was examined. The correlation among XRD, nitrogen adsorption data and catalytic activity suggested that ZS has been finely dispersed on activated carbon, which are active in the esterification of oleic acid. The reaction shows that the supported ZS exhibits a higher activity than that of parent ZS and conventional resins.


zirconium sulfate activated carbon esterification oleic acid 



The authors are thankful to the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 20076004) and Malaysia Ministry of Science and Technology (IRPA grant 09-02-02-0033) for the financial support. We are also grateful to UNESCO/China Great Wall Co-Sponsored program for a fellowship to J.C. Juan.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joon Ching Juan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jingchang Zhang
    • 1
  • Yajie Jiang
    • 1
  • Weiliang Cao
    • 1
  • Mohd Ambar Yarmo
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Modern CatalysisBeijing University of Chemical Technology, State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Ministry of EducationBeijingChina
  2. 2.Advanced Catalysis Technology Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia

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