Cell and Tissue Banking

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 135–141 | Cite as

Cryopreservation of Human Embryos

  • H. W. Michelmann
  • P. Nayudu


Cryopreservation of human embryos from the 2-cell stage up to the morula stage is a safe procedure which has been carried out for the last 25 years. Experience with blastocyst cryopreservation is still limited and pregnancy rates after the use of frozen, thawed blastocysts vary extremely. Vitrification has improved the success of embryo cryopreservation. However, this technique cannot yet be considered as a routine procedure. Despite all of the advantages for infertile couples, cryopreservation of human embryos creates severe ethical problems, because of surplus frozen embryos which either have to be destroyed or perhaps used for research. Embryo adoption may provide a solution to solve imminent medical, ethical and social problems.


Blastocysts Cryopreservation Embryos Freezing Vitrification 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of GoettingenGoettingenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Reproductive BiologyGerman Primate CenterGoettingen Germany

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