Peer Victimization and Adolescent Suicide: The Mediating Effect of Risk Behaviors
- 783 Downloads
This study explored the impact of three risk behaviors (risky sexual behaviors, aggression, and substance use) on the peer victimization–suicide relationship. A hypothesized model was developed using an integrated conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and escape theory of suicide. This model was then tested using structural equation modeling. The participants were 7,656 males (49.8 %) and 7,708 females (50.2 %) from the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey ranged in age from 12 years or less to over 18 years (mean = 16.1 years, SD = 1.24). Results demonstrated that peer victimization has a significant direct effect on suicidal behavior. Aggression, and substance use, but not risky sexual behavior, mediated the risk of suicide. Also, substance use has a significant direct effect on aggression that affects suicidal behavior. Findings were discussed within the context of the empirical and theoretical review and implications for social work practice were considered.
KeywordsPeer victimization Suicide Risky sexual behavior Aggression Substance use
- American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. (2014). Facts and figures: Suicide deaths. Retrieved from http://www.afsp.org/understanding-suicide/facts-and-figures.
- Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Bandura, A. (1991). Self-efficacy mechanism in physiological activation and health-promoting behavior. In J. Madden IV (Ed.), Neurobiology of learning, emotion and affect (pp. 229–270). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010). 10 Leading causes of death by age group, United States—2010. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/pdf/10LCID_All_Deaths_By_Age_Group_2010-a.pdf.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). 2011YRBS data user’s guide. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/data/yrbs/2011/YRBS_2011_National_User_Guide.pdf.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2014). Trends in suicide rates among persons ages 10 years and older, by sex, United States, 1991–2009. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/suicide/statistics/trends01.html.
- Choi, H., Meininger, J., & Roberts, R. (2006). Ethnic differences in adolescents’ mental distress, social stress, and resources. Adolescence, 21(162), 263–283.Google Scholar
- Demaray, M. K., & Malecki, C. K. (2003). Perceptions of the frequency and importance of social support by students classified as victims, bullies, and bully/victims in an urban middle school. School Psychology Review, 32(3), 471–489.Google Scholar
- DeWall, C. N., Twenge, J. M., Gitter, S. A., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). It’s the thought that counts: The role of hostile cognition in shaping aggressive responses to social exclusion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(1), 45–59. doi: 10.1037/a0013196.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fagan, J. (1990). Intoxication and aggression. In M. Tonry & J. Q. Wilson (Eds.), Drugs and crime. Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 13, pp. 241–320). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Hallfors, D., Hyunsan, C., Brodish, P. H., Flewelling, R., & Khatapoush, S. (2006). Identifying high school students “at risk” for substance us and other behavioral problems: Implications for prevention. Substance Use and Misuse, 41(1), 1–15. doi: 10.1080/10826080500318509.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Heilbron, N., & Prinstein, M. J. (2010). Adolescent peer victimization, peer status, suicidal ideation, and nonsuicidal self-injury: Examining concurrent and longitudinal associations. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 56(3), 388–419.Google Scholar
- Hollander, D. (2001). Health risks after dating violence. Family Planning Perspectives, 33(6), 242–244.Google Scholar
- Joiner, T. E., & Rudd, M. (2002). Suicide science: Expanding the boundaries. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Lee, R. (1993). Doing research on sensitive topics. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Luncheon, C., Bae, S., Lurie, S., & Singh, K. (2008). Drug use among Hispanic female adolescents who are at risk for suicide. American Journal of Health Studies, 23(3), 108–115.Google Scholar
- Menzer, M. M., Oh, W., McDonald, K. L., Rubin, K. H., & Dashiell-Aje, E. (2010). Behavioral correlates of peer exclusion and victimization of East Asian American and European American young adolescents. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1(4), 290–302. doi: 10.1037/a0022085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nickerson, A. B., & Slater, E. D. (2009). School and community violence and victimization as predictors of adolescent suicidal behavior. School Psychology Review, 38(2), 218–232.Google Scholar
- Rudolph, K. D., Troop-Gordon, W., Hessel, E. T., & Schmidt, J. D. (2011). A latent growth curve analysis of early and increasing peer victimization as predictors of mental health across elementary school. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40(1), 111–122.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rulison, K. L., Gest, S. D., Loken, E., & Welsh, J. A. (2010). Rejection, feeling bad, and being hurt: Using multilevel modeling to clarify the link between peer group aggression and adjustment. Journal of Adolescence, 33(6), 787–800. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.07.005.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spirito, A., Esposito-Smythers, C., Weismoore, J., & Miller, A. (2012). Adolescent suicidal behavior. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Child and adolescent therapy: Cognitive-behavioral procedures (4th ed., pp. 234–256). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Spriggs, A. L., Iannotti, R. J., Nansel, T. R., & Haynie, D. L. (2007). Adolescent bullying involvement and perceived family, peer and school relations: Commonalities and differences across race/ethnicity. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 41(3), 283–293. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.04.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thompson, E., Connelly, C., Thomas-Jones, D., & Eggert, L. (2013). School difficulties and co-occurring health risk factors: Substance use, aggression, depression, and suicidal behaviors. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 26(1), 74–84. doi: 10.1111/jcap.12026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Department of Education. (2008). Student victimization in US schools: Results from the 2005 school crime supplement to the national crime victimization survey. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2009306.
- Waldrop, A. E., Hanson, R. F., Resnick, H. S., Kilpatrick, D. G., Naugle, A. E., & Saunders, B. F. (2007). Risk factors for suicidal behavior among a national sample of adolescents: Implications for prevention. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(5), 869–879. doi: 10.1002/jts.20291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar