Design, Fabrication and Analysis of Silicon Hollow Microneedles for Transdermal Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Hemodynamic Dysfunctions
- 415 Downloads
In this paper, we present design, fabrication and coupled multifield analysis of hollow out-of-plane silicon microneedles with piezoelectrically actuated microfluidic device for transdermal drug delivery (TDD) system for treatment of cardiovascular or hemodynamic disorders such as hypertension. The mask layout design and fabrication process of silicon microneedles and reservoir involving deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) is first presented. This is followed by actual fabrication of silicon hollow microneedles by a series of combined isotropic and anisotropic etching processes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching technology. Then coupled multifield analysis of a MEMS based piezoelectrically actuated device with integrated silicon microneedles is presented. The coupledfield analysis of hollow silicon microneedle array integrated with piezoelectric micropump has involved structural and fluid field couplings in a sequential structural-fluid analysis on a three-dimensional model of the microfluidic device. The effect of voltage and frequency on silicon membrane deflection and flow rate through the microneedle is investigated in the coupled field analysis using multiple code coupling method. The results of the present study provide valuable benchmark and prediction data to fabricate optimized designs of the silicon hollow microneedle based microfluidic devices for transdermal drug delivery applications.
KeywordsComputational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis Deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) Drug delivery Hollow silicon microneedle Multifield analysis Transdermal drug delivery (TDD)
The authors would like to thank and acknowledge K. Saejok, C. Hruanun, Atthi N. Somwamg, and J. Supadech at Thai Microelectronics Center (TMEC), Thailand for providing DRIE facility and process for microneedle fabrication.
- Ahmadian M, Saidi M, Mehrabian A, Bazargan M, Kenarsari S. Performance of valveless diffuser micropumps under harmonic piezoelectric actuation. In: ASME conference on engineering systems design and analysis. 2006.Google Scholar
- ANSI/IEEE Std 176. IEEE standard on piezoelectricity. IEEE; 1987. http://standards.ieee.org/reading/ieee/std_public/description/ultrasonics/176-1987_desc.html.
- Batchelor GK. An introduction to fluid dynamics. University of Cambridge. 1967.Google Scholar
- Bodhale DW, Nisar A, Afzulpurkar N. Structural and microfluidic analysis of hollow side-open polymeric microneedles for transdermal drug delivery applications. Microfluid Nanofluid. 2009. doi: 10.1007/s10404-009-0467-9.
- Gardeniers HJGE, et al. Silicon micromachined hollow microneedles for transdermal liquid transport. J Microelctromech Syst. 2003;12(6).Google Scholar
- Gere J, Timoshenko S. Mechanics of materials, 4th edn. 1997.Google Scholar
- Guo SX, Pei Z, Wang T, Ye XF. A novel type of pulseless output micropump based on magnet-solenoid actuator. In: IEEE/ICME international conference on complex medical engineering. 2007. p. 96–100.Google Scholar
- Henry S, et al. Micro machined needles for the transdermal drug delivery of drugs. In: Proceedings of IEEE workshop MEMS. 1998. p. 494–98.Google Scholar
- Janna WS. Design of fluid thermal system. 2nd ed. Boston: PWS Pub.; 1998.Google Scholar
- Khumpuang S, et al. Design and fabrication of coupled microneedle array and insertion guide array for safe penetration through skin. In: International symposium of micromechatronics and human science. 2003.Google Scholar
- Matteucci M, et al. A compact and disposable transdermal drug delivery system. Sincrotrone Trieste, I-34012 Basovizza-Trieste, Italy. 2008.Google Scholar
- Oka K, Aoyagi S, Arai Y, Isono Y, Hashiguchi G, Fujita H. Fabrication of a microneedle for a trace blood test. Sens Actuators A. 2002;97–98:478–85.Google Scholar
- Park JH, Davis S, Yoon YK, Allen MG, Prausnitz MR. Micromachined biodegradable microstructures. In: 16th IEEE international conference on microelectro mechanical systems. Kyoto, Japan. 2003. p. 371–74.Google Scholar
- Shibata T, et al. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of microneedle array for cell surgery. In: Actuators and microsystems conference. 2007. p. 719–22.Google Scholar
- Stoeber B, Liepmann D. Fluid injection through out-of-plane microneedles. Micro technologies in medicine and biology. In: 1st annual international conference. Berkeley, CA. 2000.Google Scholar
- Stoeber B, Liepmann D. Design, fabrication and testing of a MEMS syringe. Berkeley sensor and actuator center, University of California at Berkeley, CA. 2002.Google Scholar
- Timoshenko S, Krienger Woinowsky S. Theory of plates and shells. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1995.Google Scholar
- Wang X, et al. A novel fabrication approach for microneedles using silicon micromachining technology. In: 1st IEEE international conference on NEMS. 2006. p. 545–49.Google Scholar
- Wang C, Leu T, Sun J. Unsteady analysis of microvalves with no moving parts. J Mech. 2007;23:9–14.Google Scholar
- Wilke N, et al. Silicon microneedle electrode array with temperature monitoring for electroporation. Sens Actuators A. 2005a;1090(123–124):319–25.Google Scholar
- Wilke N, et al. Process optimization and characterization of silicon microneedles fabricated by wet etch technology. Micro Electron J. 2005b;36:650–6.Google Scholar
- Yao Q, Xu D, Pan L, Teo A, Ho W, Lee V, et al. CFD simulations of flows in valveless micropumps. Eng Appl Comput Fluid Mech. 2007;1:181–8.Google Scholar