Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 191–196 | Cite as

Contemporary Antithrombotic Treatment in Patients with Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Rationale and Design of the Greek AntiPlatElet Atrial Fibrillation (GRAPE-AF) Registry

  • Ioanna Xanthopoulou
  • Vasiliki-Maria Dragona
  • Periklis Davlouros
  • Costas Tsioufis
  • Efstathios Iliodromitis
  • Dimitrios Alexopoulos
  • for the GRAPE-AF Investigators



Approximately 5 to 7% of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the treatment of coronary artery disease require chronic oral anticoagulation (OAC) on top of aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, mainly due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). The advent of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) increased treatment options, while there is cumulative evidence that dual combination of a NOAC and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist attenuates risk of bleeding, compared to traditional triple therapy, consisting of a vitamin K antagonist (VKA), aspirin, and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, without significantly compromising efficacy.

Study Design

Greek AntiPlatElet Atrial Fibrillation (GRAPE-AF, NCT 03362788) is an observational, nationwide study of non-valvular AF patients undergoing PCI, planning to enroll over 1-year period > 500 participants in 25 tertiary and non-tertiary PCI centers in Greece. Key data to be collected pre-discharge include demographics, detailed past medical history, and antithrombotic and concomitant treatment. Patients will be followed up at 1, 6, and 12 months post hospital discharge. Αt each follow-up visit, data on antithrombotic treatment, ischemic, bleeding, and adverse events will be collected. Study’s primary endpoint is clinically significant bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium, BARC ≥ 2) at 12 months, between VKAs and NOACs-treated patients, analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models, by an intention-to-treat principle. An independent endpoint committee will adjudicate all clinical events.


This study aims at providing “real-world” information on current antithrombotic treatment patterns and clinical outcome of patients with non-valvular AF undergoing PCI.


Antithrombotic treatment Atrial fibrillation Percutaneous coronary intervention 


Funding Information

This study has been funded by the Hellenic Cardiological Society.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Alexopoulos discloses lecturing honoraria from AstraZeneca, Bayer, and Boehringer Ingelheim and Advisory Board fees from AstraZeneca, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Medtronic. Dr. Tsioufis has received consultancy fees, Research Grant and, honoraria fees from the following: Servier, Menarini, Medtronic, Bayer, Novartis, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Pfizer, Chiesi, Recordati, Sanofi, and MSD. The rest of the authors have nothing to disclose.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioanna Xanthopoulou
    • 1
  • Vasiliki-Maria Dragona
    • 2
  • Periklis Davlouros
    • 1
  • Costas Tsioufis
    • 3
  • Efstathios Iliodromitis
    • 4
  • Dimitrios Alexopoulos
    • 4
  • for the GRAPE-AF Investigators
  1. 1.Cardiology DepartmentPatras University HospitalPatrasGreece
  2. 2.3rd Department of Internal MedicineRed Cross HospitalAthensGreece
  3. 3.1st Department of Cardiology, Ippokration HospitalNational and Capodistrian University of Athens Medical SchoolAthensGreece
  4. 4.2nd Department of Cardiology, Attikon University HospitalNational and Capodistrian University of Athens Medical SchoolAthensGreece

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