Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate the Phenotype of Smooth Muscle Cells to Limit Intimal Hyperplasia
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Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play important roles in the reduction of inflammation in multiple disease models. However, their role in vein graft (VG) remodeling is undefined. We aimed to investigate the effect of EVs from adipose MSCs (ADMSC-EVs) on VG intimal hyperplasia and to explore the possible mechanisms.
After generation and characterization of control-EVs and ADMSC-EVs in vitro, we investigated their effect on the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Next, we established a mouse model of VG transplantation. Mice underwent surgery and received control-EVs or ADMSC-EVs by intraperitoneal injection every other day for 20 days. VG remodeling was evaluated after 4 weeks. We also assessed the effect of ADMSC-EVs on macrophage migration and inflammatory cytokine expression.
Significant inhibitory effects of ADMSC-EVs on in vitro VSMC proliferation (p < 0.05) and migration (p < 0.05) were observed compared with control-EVs. The extent of intimal hyperplasia was significantly decreased in ADMSC-EV-treated mice compared with control-EV-treated mice (26 ± 8.4 vs. 45 ± 9.0 μm, p < 0.05). A reduced presence of macrophages was observed in ADMSC-EV-treated mice (p < 0.05). Significantly decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was also found in the ADMSC-EV-treated group (both p < 0.05). In addition, phosphorylation of Akt, Erk1/2, and p38 in VGs was decreased in the ADMSC-EV-treated group.
We demonstrated that ADMSC-EVs exert an inhibitory effect on VG neointima formation by regulating VSMC proliferation and migration, macrophage migration, inflammatory cytokine expression, and the related signaling pathways.
KeywordsExtracellular vesicles Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells Vein grafts Vascular smooth muscle cells Proliferation Migration
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of the Shanghai Municipal Government (13AR1459200).
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