Rationale and Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Whole Muscle Exercise Training Effects in Outpatients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (WHOLEi+12)
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Background and Aims
Physical exercise is an important component in the management of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine the effects of an 8-week intervention combining muscle resistance, aerobic and inspiratory pressure load exercises in PAH outpatients.
The RCT will be conducted from September 2015 to September 2016 following the recommendations of the Consolidated Standards of Reported Trials (CONSORT), with a total sample size of n ≥ 48 (≥24 participants/group). We will determine the effects of the intervention on: (i) skeletal-muscle power and mass (primary end points); and (ii) NT-proBNP, cardiopulmonary exercise testing variables (VO2peak, ventilatory equivalent for CO2 at the anaerobic threshold (VE/VCO2 at the AT), end-tidal pressure of CO2 at the anaerobic threshold (PETCO2 at the AT), 6-min walking distance (6MWD), maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax), health-related quality of life (HRQoL), objectively-assessed spontaneous levels of physical activity, and safety (secondary end points).
Conclusions and Perspectives
This trial will provide insight into biological mechanisms of the disease and indicate the potential benefits of exercise in PAH outpatients, particularly on muscle power.
KeywordsResistance exercise Pulmonary disease VO2peak NT-proBNP Cardio-pulmonary exercise testing
We acknowledge to Powerbreathe Spain, Biocorp Europa, Andoain, Basque Country, Spain for the kind donation of devices for inspiratory muscle training. Research by A.L. is funded by Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias (grant #PS12/00194) and Fondos FEDER.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare they have no financial competing interests.
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