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Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 315–331 | Cite as

What is the Role of Erythropoietin in Acute Myocardial Infarct? Bridging the Gap Between Experimental Models and Clinical Trials

  • François Roubille
  • Fabrice Prunier
  • Stéphanie Barrère-Lemaire
  • Florence Leclercq
  • Christophe Piot
  • Ekaterini A. Kritikou
  • Eric Rhéaume
  • David Busseuil
  • Jean-Claude Tardif
REVIEW ARTICLE

Abstract

Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main hormone that regulates erythropoiesis. Beyond its well-known hematopoietic action, EPO has diverse cellular effects in non-hematopoietic tissues. It has been shown to inhibit apoptosis by activating pro-survival pathways in the myocardium, to mobilize endothelial progenitor cells and to inhibit migration of inflammatory cells. EPO has also been shown to have potent pro-angiogenic properties. Numerous experimental data support the cardioprotective effects of EPO in animal models of acute myocardial infarct (AMI). However, these findings are not supported by recent clinical trials designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of EPO in patients with AMI. In this article, we begin by providing a comprehensive review of the cardioprotective effects of EPO in experimental animal models and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. We then discuss the EPO data obtained through clinical trials. We compare similarities and differences between the animal and human studies as well as between the different clinical studies in terms of sample size and study design including the dose, the route and the timing of administration as well as confounding factors such as comorbidities and concomitant treatments. Finally, we question the gap between the experimental and the translational clinical data and propose further developments to address these discrepancies and clearly evaluate the role of EPO in the clinical setting of MI.

Keywords

Erythropoietin Cardioprotection Reperfusion injury Acute myocardial infarction Experimental models Clinical trials 

Abbreviations

AAR

Area at risk

ACE

Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor

AMI

Acute myocardial infarction

ARBs

Angiotensin II receptor blockers

CABG

Coronary artery bypass graft

CAD

Coronary artery disease

ESC

European Society of Cardiology

EPO

Erythropoietin

EPO-R

EPO receptor

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinases

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

G-CSF

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

Hb

Hemoglobin

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

HO

Heme oxygenase

I

Ischemia

IGF

Insulin growth factor

IL

Interleukin

IM

Intramuscular

IP

Intraperitonealy

IS

Infarct size

IV

Intravenous

LV

Left ventricular

LVEF

Left ventricular ejection fraction

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

NHLBI

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

PI3K

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

PCI

Primary percutaneous coronary intervention

PostC

Postconditioning

R

Reperfusion

STEMI

ST-elevation myocardial infarction

TIMI

Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction

TNFα

Tumour necrosis factor-α

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants from the Fédération Française de Cardiologie (FR). The authors apologize to the authors whose works couldn’t be quoted because of space limitations.

Conflicts of Interest

Dr Roubille has no conflict of interest related to this study. Dr Prunier has received a grant form Amgen for a previous work (Prunier Am J Physiol 2007). Dr Tardif’s laboratory has received research grants from Roche.

Supplementary material

10557_2013_6461_MOESM1_ESM.doc (54 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 (DOC 54 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • François Roubille
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fabrice Prunier
    • 4
    • 5
  • Stéphanie Barrère-Lemaire
    • 3
  • Florence Leclercq
    • 2
  • Christophe Piot
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ekaterini A. Kritikou
    • 6
  • Eric Rhéaume
    • 6
    • 7
  • David Busseuil
    • 6
  • Jean-Claude Tardif
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Montreal Heart InstituteUniversité de MontréalMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Cardiology DepartmentUniversity Hospital of MontpellierMontpellierFrance
  3. 3.Inserm, CNRS, UMR-5203, Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, INSERM, U661Universités de Montpellier 1 and 2MontpellierFrance
  4. 4.Laboratoire Cardioprotection, Remodelage et ThromboseUniversité d’AngersAngersFrance
  5. 5.Service de CardiologieCentre Hospitalier Universitaire AngersAngersFrance
  6. 6.Montreal Heart InstituteMontrealCanada
  7. 7.Department of MedicineUniversité de MontréalMontrealCanada

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