Decreased biventricular mechanics and functional reserve in nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients: implications for exercise capacity

  • Xiao-Peng Wu
  • Yi-Dan Li
  • Yi-Dan Wang
  • Miao Zhang
  • Wei-Wei Zhu
  • Qi-Zhe Cai
  • Wei Jiang
  • Lan-Lan Sun
  • Xue-Yan Ding
  • Xiao-Guang Ye
  • Yun-Yun Qin
  • Zhe Jiang
  • Di-Chen Guo
  • Xiu-Zhang LuEmail author
Original Paper


The present study investigated the changes of biventricular mechanics at rest and during exercise and examined the association between exercise capacity and biventricular mechanics and functional reserve in nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (NHCM) patients. A total of 50 NHCM patients and 25 controls were consecutively recruited for this study. Using echocardiography and two-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging, an experienced echocardiographer determined the following indices: RV free wall longitudinal strain (RVFWLS), LV global longitudinal strain (LVGLS), strain rate (SR), and functional reserve of strain values. We also investigated the relationships between biventricular mechanics and exercise capacity using metabolic equivalents (METs). NHCM patients had lower RVFWLS, LVGLS, systolic SR, early diastolic SR, and systolic and diastolic reserve during exercise compared to controls. An association of biventricular mechanics (LVGLS, RVFWLS) with exercise capacity at rest and during exercise was established. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that RVFWLS and LVE/e′ during exercise (RVFWLS-exe, E/e′-exe) were independent predictors of exercise intolerance. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that LVE/e′-exe had a higher area under the curve for predicting exercise intolerance in NHCM patients. In hierarchical analysis, RVFWLS-exe provided an incremental predictive value of exercise intolerance over LVGLS during exercise (LVGLS-exe) and LVE/e′-exe. LVE/e′-exe also changed incrementally compared to LVGLS-exe and RVFWLS-exe. NHCM patients have decreased biventricular mechanics at rest and during exercise and impaired biventricular functional reserve, and biventricular mechanics are associated with functional capacity. We propose that simultaneous evaluation of biventricular function should provide incremental predictive value for exercise intolerance.


Nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Exercise echocardiography Speckle-tracking imaging Biventricular mechanics 



We are very grateful to all subjects for their participation and other colleagues for their support.


The present study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC No. 81571683), Beijing Chao-yang Hospital 1351 Talent Training Plan (No. CYMY-2017-28).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the local ethics committee. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Written informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10554_2019_1530_MOESM1_ESM.tif (193 kb)
Supplemental Figure 1. Flowchart showing the enrollment of subjects in the study. PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention (TIF 192 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiao-Peng Wu
    • 1
  • Yi-Dan Li
    • 1
  • Yi-Dan Wang
    • 1
  • Miao Zhang
    • 1
  • Wei-Wei Zhu
    • 1
  • Qi-Zhe Cai
    • 1
  • Wei Jiang
    • 1
  • Lan-Lan Sun
    • 1
  • Xue-Yan Ding
    • 1
  • Xiao-Guang Ye
    • 1
  • Yun-Yun Qin
    • 1
  • Zhe Jiang
    • 1
  • Di-Chen Guo
    • 1
  • Xiu-Zhang Lu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Echocardiography, Heart Center, Beijing Chao Yang HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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