Intravascular ultrasound assessment of the effects of rotational atherectomy in calcified coronary artery lesions
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We sought to clarify intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) features of rotational atherectomy (RA) of calcified lesions. IVUS was performed post-RA and post-stent in 38 lesions and analyzed every 1 mm. Pre-intervention IVUS was performed when the IVUS catheter crossed the lesion (n = 11). Calcium Index was average calcium angle multiplied by calcium length. We compared lowest (n = 13), middle (n = 13), and highest (n = 12) Calcium Index tertiles. Reverberations (multiple reflections from calcium) with a concave-shaped lumen in the post-RA IVUS were considered to represent RA-related calcium modification. Newly visible perivascular tissue through a previously solid arc of calcium in the post-stent IVUS was also evaluated. Comparing the pre and post-RA IVUS, maximum reverberation angle, and length increased significantly after RA (angle, from 45° [31, 67] to 96° [50, 148], p = 0.003; length, from 4.0 mm [2.0, 6.0] to 8.0 mm [4.0, 14.0], p = 0.005). In the post-RA IVUS, reverberations had a larger angle in the middle and highest Calcium Index tertiles (lowest, 91° [64, 133]; middle, 135° [107, 201]; highest, 150° [93, 208], p = 0.03). Post-stent newly visible perivascular tissue was more frequent in the middle and highest Calcium Index tertiles (lowest, 30.8%; middle, 69.2%; highest, 75.0%, p = 0.049). Minimum stent area was similar after calcium modification by RA irrespective of the severity of the Calcium Index (lowest, 6.7 mm2 [5.7, 8.9]; middle, 5.6 mm2 [4.9, 6.8]; highest, 6.7 mm2 [5.9, 8.2], p = 0.2). Greater calcium modification by RA occurs in severely calcified lesions with smaller lumen diameters to mitigate against stent underexpansion.
KeywordsIntravascular ultrasound Rotational atherectomy Calcified lesions
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Akiko Maehara has received consulting fees from ACIST, Boston Scientific, and St Jude Medical, and research grants from Boston Scientific; Gary S. Mintz has received consulting fees from ACIST, Boston Scientific, St Jude, and Volcano. The rest of the authors have no conflicts to report.
The study protocol was approved by the institutional ethics committee of Golden Jubilee National Hospital, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
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