The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging

, Volume 32, Issue 12, pp 1687–1695 | Cite as

Regression equations of Z score and echocardiographic nomograms for coronary sinus in healthy children

  • Guang Song
  • Jing Liu
  • Wei Qiao
  • Yixin Chen
  • Lu Sun
  • Weidong Ren
  • Fangfang Li
  • Miao Fan
Original Paper


As the number of implanted biventricular pacemakers increases, the coronary sinus (CS) has evoked much interest amongst cardiologists. A dilated CS could prompt the existence of many diseases. The normal CS diameter is uncertain, especially in children. A total of 446 Chinese healthy children were prospectively enrolled in this study. The superior and inferior diameter of the CS was measured from the CS ostium 1 cm from the end of ventricular systole in the modified apical 4-chamber view. Seven models were tested to determine the relationships between parameters of body size and CS diameter. Heteroscedasticity was tested by the White and Breusch–Pagan tests. A multiple linear regression model should be gender as a covariate along with BSAStevenson, in order to evaluate the influence of gender on the measurements. The formula of Stevenson was best-fit. The predicted values and Z-score boundaries for measurement of the CS diameter were calculated. Bland–Altman plot regression showed that the 95 % limits of agreement for inter- and intra-observer measurements were not significantly different. We report new, reliable echocardiographic Z scores for the CS diameter derived from a large population of healthy Chinese children. The Z scores can be used in echocardiographic examinations.


Echocardiography Children Healthy Nomograms Coronary sinus 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guang Song
    • 1
  • Jing Liu
    • 2
  • Wei Qiao
    • 1
  • Yixin Chen
    • 1
  • Lu Sun
    • 1
  • Weidong Ren
    • 1
  • Fangfang Li
    • 1
  • Miao Fan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UltrasoundShengjing Hospital of China Medical UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.Department of ObstetricsFirst Affiliated Hospital of China Medical UniversityShenyangChina

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