Diagnostic tools in the preoperative evaluation of children with anomalous pulmonary venous connections
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Pulmonary venous abnormalities are generally diagnosed by echocardiography and often confirmed by cardiac catheterization. Although angiography has been the gold standard for evaluation it carries certain inherent risks, especially in small and sick infants. In this study we retrospectively assessed the utility of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) in the evaluation of pulmonary venous abnormalities in pediatric patients. The results were compared with operative findings. We reviewed nine patients with total APVC and four with partial APVC. Twelve patients were infant (age range: 1 day to 8 months) and the other was 16 years old. MRA and/or CTA clearly visualized the anomalous drainage of pulmonary veins in all patients. Cardiac catheterization was performed five patients with one total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and four with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Ten patients were operated on. Diagnoses of patients were confirmed by operative findings. In Conclusions, MR and CT angiography allow detailed and comprehensive evaluation of the APVC and are good diagnostic modalities for use in the preoperative assessment of the anomaly in pediatric patients.
KeywordsAnomalous pulmonary venous connections Computed tomography angiography Echocardiography Magnetic resonance angiography
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