Africa’s oesophageal cancer corridor: Do hot beverages contribute?
- 244 Downloads
Hot beverage consumption has been linked to oesophageal squamous cell cancer (EC), but its contribution to the poorly understood East African EC corridor is not known.
In a cross-sectional study of general-population residents in Kilimanjaro, North Tanzania, tea drinking temperatures and times were measured. Using linear regression models, we compared drinking temperatures to those in previous studies, by socio-demographic factors and tea type (“milky tea” which can be 50 % or more milk and water boiled together vs “black tea” which has no milk).
Participants started drinking at a mean of 70.6 °C (standard deviation 3.9, n = 188), which exceeds that in all previous studies (p ≤ 0.01 for each). Tea type, gender and age were associated with drinking temperatures. After mutual adjustment for each other, milky tea drinkers drank their tea 1.9 °C (95 % confidence interval: 0.9, 2.9) hotter than drinkers of black tea, largely because black tea cooled twice as fast as milky tea. Men commenced drinking tea 0.9 °C (−0.2, 2.1) hotter than women did and finished their cups 30 (−9, 69) seconds faster. 70 % and 39 % of milky and black tea drinkers, respectively, reported a history of tongue burning.
Hot tea consumption, especially milky tea, may be an important and modifiable risk factor for EC in Tanzania. The contribution of this habit to EC risk needs to be evaluated in this setting, jointly with that of the many risk factors acting synergistically in this multi-factorial disease.
KeywordsOesophageal cancer Tanzania Hot beverages Tea
We would like to thank the village elders and members of the Machame community for their participation in this study and to the fieldworkers Mr Timothy Ngowi and Mr Leons. We thank the KCRI data management and data entry team for their assistance in this work. This study was funded by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and was jointly conducted with the Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute (KCRI), an Institute of Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC). Dr Oresto Munishi’s work on oesophageal cancer was supported by the 2012 UICC-IARC Development Fellowship; he is also partially supported by a HIV Associated Malignancies Training Program (HAMTRP) GRANT No. D43CA153722. During fieldwork, an MD4 medical student funded by the Medical Education Partnership Initiative HRSA grant T84-HA21123—Mentored Research Training Program (MEPI MRTP) of KCMC was mentored.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interests
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- 3.Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M et al (2013) GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11. http://www.globocan.iarc.fr/
- 12.Anonymous (1991) Coffee, tea, mate, methylxanthines and methylglyoxal. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon, 27 February to 6 March 1990, IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 51: 1–513Google Scholar
- 15.Otiso KM (2013) Cuisine and Dress. ABC-CLIO Greenwood, Culture and Customs of TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
- 16.2014 Copyright Tanzania Meteorological Agency (2015) Tanzania Meteorological Agency. http://www.meteo.go.tz/
- 24.Omore A, Arimi S, Kangethe E et al. (2001) Assessing and Managing Milk-borne Health Risks for the Benefit of Consumers in KenyaGoogle Scholar
- 32.Hot Disk (2015) Thermal Conductivity measurements on milk with various fat contents with the Hot Disk Thermal Constants Analyser. http://www.hotdiskinstruments.com/images/stories/pdf/Nr%202%20Applikation%20note%20-%20MILK%20A4.PDF
- 33.Kurwijila LR (2002) Smallholder dairy production and marketing- Opportunities and constraints. Chapter 17: An overview of dairy development in Tanzania. In: D.Rangnekar and W.Thorpe, (eds) NDDB (National Dairy Development Board), Anand, India; ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar