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Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 407–408 | Cite as

Reply to comments by Dr. Frisch and Dr. Van Howe

  • Manit Arya
  • Ruoran Li
  • Asif Muneer
  • Michel P. Coleman
Letter to the Editor

Dear editor,

We appreciate the opportunity to respond to the thoughtful comments by Dr. Frisch and Dr. Van Howe.

They suggest the need for a trend test to determine whether the changes in age-standardized rates are statistically significant. We used variance-weighted least squares linear regression to estimate the average year-on-year change in the incidence rate per 100,000 men per year between 1979 and 2009. The average annual increase in the incidence rate is numerically small at 0.007 (95 % CI 0.005–0.010) per 100,000 per year, but it is statistically significant (p < 0.001). This modeled trend represents an absolute increase in the age-standardized incidence rate of 0.22 per 100,000, or about a 20 % increase over the 31-year period 1979–2009.

Frisch and Van Howe recommend examination of trends in the age-specific incidence rates by calendar period and by birth cohort (both in 10-year age intervals).The trend in incidence rates in England over the 30-year period 1980–2009 varied...

Keywords

Incidence Rate Human Papilloma Virus Birth Cohort Absolute Increase Penile Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manit Arya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ruoran Li
    • 3
  • Asif Muneer
    • 1
  • Michel P. Coleman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity College HospitalLondonUK
  2. 2.Barts Cancer InstituteQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Faculty of Epidemiology and Population HealthLondon School of Hygiene & Tropical MedicineLondonUK

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