Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 23, Issue 7, pp 1009–1016 | Cite as

Cervical cancer survivors at increased risk of subsequent tobacco-related malignancies, United States 1992–2008

  • J. Michael Underwood
  • Sun Hee Rim
  • Temeika L. Fairley
  • Eric Tai
  • Sherri L. Stewart
Original paper



Persistent smoking among cancer survivors may increase their risk of subsequent malignancies, including tobacco-related malignancies. Despite these risks, nearly 40 % of women diagnosed with cervical cancer continue to smoke after diagnosis. This study describes the relative risk of developing any subsequent and tobacco-related malignancy among cervical cancer survivors.


We examined data from the year 1992 to 2008 in 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries. We calculated the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and 95 % confidence limits (CLs) for all subsequent and tobacco-related malignancies among cervical cancer survivors. Tobacco-related malignancies were defined according to the 2004 Surgeon General’s Report on the Health Consequences of Smoking. For comparison with cervical cancer survivors, SIRs for subsequent malignancies were also calculated for female survivors of breast or colorectal cancers.


The SIR of developing a subsequent tobacco-related malignancy was higher among cervical cancer survivors (SIR = 2.2, 95 % CL = 2.0–2.4). Female breast (SIR = 1.1, 95 % CL = 1.0–1.1) and colorectal cancer survivors (1.1, 1.1–1.2) also had an elevated risk. The increased risk of a subsequent tobacco-related malignancy among cervical cancer survivors was greatest in the first 5 years after the initial diagnosis and decreased as time since diagnosis elapsed.


Women with cervical cancer have a two-fold increased risk of subsequent tobacco-related malignancies, compared with breast and colorectal cancer survivors. In an effort to decrease their risk of subsequent tobacco-related malignancies, cancer survivors should be targeted for tobacco prevention and cessation services. Special attention should be given to cervical cancer survivors whose risk is almost twice that of breast or colorectal cancer survivors.


Second primary neoplasms Uterine cervical neoplasms Epidemiology Tobacco 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA)  2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Michael Underwood
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sun Hee Rim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Temeika L. Fairley
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eric Tai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sherri L. Stewart
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Cancer Prevention and ControlAtlantaUSA

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