Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 23, Supplement 1, pp 7–9 | Cite as

Reducing global health inequities through tobacco control

  • Joaquin Barnoya
  • Thomas Glynn

The World Health Organization’s (WHO) constitution states that enjoyment of the “highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being…”. There is ample evidence that not everyone enjoys the highest standards and that there are inequities in health worldwide. Income, gender, race, ethnicity, and social status may affect whether an individual is born and grows up healthy, or has access to good health care [1]. Whether described in terms of health equity, healthcare inequality, health disparities, or social justice, we know that, in the simplest and most stark terms, vast numbers of children, women, and men across the globe do not enjoy the basic human right of good health care.

There have been considerable scientific, medical, and policy analyses of the causes of these inequities and their potential solutions. Because, however, many of these causes, and solutions, are society-wide issues, e.g., poverty and its reduction, healthcare system barriers...


Health Inequality Tobacco Control Health Inequity Tobacco Advertising Smoking Cessation Medication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Berkman L, Kawachi I (2000) Social epidemiology, 1st edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization (2009) Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2009) Tobacco Use. Targeting the nation’s leading killer. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warner KE (2000) The economics of tobacco: myths and realities. Tob Control 9:78–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    John RM, Sung H-Y, Max WB, Ross H Counting 15 million more poor in India, thanks to tobacco. Tob Control 20:349–352Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bernstein SL, Cabral L, Maantay J et al (2009) Disparities in access to over-the-counter nicotine replacement products in New York City pharmacies. Am J Public Health 99:1699–1704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sims M, Tomkins S, Judge K, Taylor G, Jarvis MJ, Gilmore A (2010) Trends in and predictors of second-hand smoke exposure indexed by cotinine in children in England from 1996 to 2006. Addiction 105:543–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    World Health Organization (2003) WHO framework convention on tobacco control. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    World Health Organization (2007) Protection from exposure to secondhand-tobacco smoke. Policy recommendations. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Estrada Galindo G (2008) El sistema de salud en Guatemala, 9: Sintesis. In: Programa de Naciones Unidas Para el Desarrollo (PNUD) (ed) Guatemala, GuatemalaGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barnoya J, Mendoza-Montano C, Navas-Acien A (2007) Secondhand smoke exposure in public places in Guatemala: comparison with other Latin American countries. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:2730–2735PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barnoya J, Arvizu M, Jones M, Hernandez J, Breysse P, Navas-Acien A (2011) Secondhand smoke exposure in bars and restaurants in Guatemala City: before and after smoking ban evaluation. Cancer Causes Control 22:151–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unidad de Cirugia Cardiovascular de GuatemalaGuatemalaGuatemala
  2. 2.Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of SurgeryWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  3. 3.American Cancer SocietyWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations