Cancer Causes & Control

, 22:1691 | Cite as

Patterns of meat intake and risk of prostate cancer among African-Americans in a large prospective study

  • Jacqueline M. Major
  • Amanda J. Cross
  • Joanne L. Watters
  • Albert R. Hollenbeck
  • Barry I. Graubard
  • Rashmi Sinha
Original paper



Given the large racial differences in prostate cancer risk, further investigation of diet and prostate cancer is warranted among high-risk groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between type of meat intake and prostate cancer risk among African-American men.


In the large, prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we analyzed baseline (1995–1996) data from African-American participants, aged 50–71 years. Incident prostate cancer cases (n = 1,089) were identified through 2006. Dietary and risk factor data were ascertained by questionnaires administered at baseline. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) within intake quantiles.


Neither white nor processed meat intake was associated with prostate cancer, regardless of meat-cooking method. Red meats cooked at high temperatures were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (HR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.00–1.38 and HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.03–1.44, for the upper two intake tertiles). Intake of the heterocyclic amine (HCA), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) was positively associated with prostate cancer (HR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.05–1.61, p = 0.02). No associations were observed for intake of other HCAs.


Red meats cooked at high temperatures were positively associated with prostate cancer risk among African-American men. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings.


Prostate cancer Cohort studies Diet Meat consumption Racial disparities Men 



This research was supported [in part] by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Cancer Institute. Cancer incidence data from the Atlanta metropolitan area were collected by the Georgia Center for Cancer Statistics, Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University. Cancer incidence data from California were collected by the California Department of Health Services, Cancer Surveillance Section. Cancer incidence data from the Detroit metropolitan area were collected by the Michigan Cancer Surveillance Program, Community Health Administration, State of Michigan. The Florida cancer incidence data used in this report were collected by the Florida Cancer Data System (FCDC) under contract with the Florida Department of Health (FDOH). The views expressed herein are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the FCDC or FDOH. Cancer incidence data from Louisiana were collected by the Louisiana Tumor Registry, Louisiana State University Medical Center in New Orleans. Cancer incidence data from New Jersey were collected by the New Jersey State Cancer Registry, Cancer Epidemiology Services, New Jersey State Department of Health and Senior Services. Cancer incidence data from North Carolina were collected by the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry. Cancer incidence data from Pennsylvania were supplied by the Division of Health Statistics and Research, Pennsylvania Department of Health, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Department of Health specifically disclaims responsibility for any analyses, interpretations, or conclusions. Cancer incidence data from Arizona were collected by the Arizona Cancer Registry, Division of Public Health Services, Arizona Department of Health Services. Cancer incidence data from Texas were collected by the Texas Cancer Registry, Cancer Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, Texas Department of State Health Services. We are indebted to the participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study for their outstanding cooperation. We also thank Sigurd Hermansen and Kerry Grace Morrissey from Westat for study outcomes ascertainment and management and Leslie Carroll at Information Management Services for data support.

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA)  2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacqueline M. Major
    • 1
  • Amanda J. Cross
    • 1
  • Joanne L. Watters
    • 2
  • Albert R. Hollenbeck
    • 3
  • Barry I. Graubard
    • 1
  • Rashmi Sinha
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human ServicesRockvilleUSA
  2. 2.Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human ServicesRockvilleUSA
  3. 3.AARPWashingtonUSA

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