Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides and risk of neuroblastoma among children: a meta-analysis
- 344 Downloads
Epidemiological data relating paternal pesticide exposure in occupational settings with higher risk of neuroblastoma are inconsistent. Since most studies included a small number of cases, lack of power is a potential reason for observed inconsistencies. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies that investigated the association of paternal occupational pesticide exposure with childhood neuroblastoma.
We identified published studies up to October 2009 on paternal pesticide exposure and neuroblastoma using online databases and extracted relative risk estimates for the association. Summary relative risk estimates were calculated using the fixed effects inverse variance weighting method. To account for heterogeneity, we used Shore-corrected confidence intervals and the random effects method. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to study design, location, and exposure ascertainment method.
The meta-analysis included seven case–control and two cohort studies with a combined total of 1,426 cases. Overall, between-study heterogeneity was low (p = 0.46), and the fixed effects, random effects, and Shore-adjusted confidence intervals were similar. The summary risk ratio was 1.07 (95% CI 0.79–1.46, two-sided p value = 0.65). Results of the subgroup meta-analyses were robustly null.
Findings from current published studies do not support an association between paternal occupational pesticide exposure and childhood neuroblastoma.
KeywordsNeuroblastoma Pesticides Occupational exposure Meta-analysis
The authors would like to thank Gloria Won for her assistance with searching Embase, Dr. Craig Steinmaus for providing Excel spreadsheets with which to perform analysis and for his editing of the draft of this paper, and Dr. William Jagust, Dr. Allan Smith, and Dr. Anneclaire De Roos for their editing of the draft of this paper. Amy Moore was supported by the Reproductive, Perinatal, and Pediatric Epidemiology Training Grant (T32 HD052462 from NICHD).
- 1.Brodeur GM, Castleberry RP (1997) Neuroblastoma. In: Pizzo PA, Poplack DG (eds) Principles and practice of pediatric oncology. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 761–797Google Scholar
- 10.Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Application, and Some Pesticides (1991) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. 53:535Google Scholar
- 13.Infante-Rivard C, Weichenthal S (2007) Pesticides and childhood cancer: an update of Zahm and Ward’s 1998 review. J Toxicol Environ Health 10(1–2):81–99Google Scholar
- 22.Bunin GR, Ward E, Kramer S, Rhee CA, Meadows AT (1990) Neuroblastoma and parental occupation. Am J Epidemiol 5:776–780Google Scholar
- 32.Petitti D (1994) Statistical methods in meta-analysis. In: Meta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost effective analysis: methods for quantitative synthesis in medicine. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 94–118Google Scholar
- 39.StataCorp (2009) Stata statistical software: release 11. StataCorp LP, College StationGoogle Scholar