Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 21, Issue 12, pp 2183–2194 | Cite as

Physical activity, body size and composition, and risk of ovarian cancer

  • Fiona Chionh
  • Laura Baglietto
  • Kavitha Krishnan
  • Dallas R. English
  • Robert J. MacInnis
  • Dorota M. Gertig
  • John L. Hopper
  • Graham G. Giles
Original paper



We examined the association between risk of ovarian cancer and physical activity and anthropometry (body mass index, height, waist, fat, and fat-free mass) in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.


This prospective cohort study included 18,700 women aged 26–76 years old at recruitment between 1990 and 1994. Participants were interviewed about their physical activity, including frequency and intensity. Body measurements were taken directly; fat mass and fat-free mass were calculated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. During an average of 10.2 years of follow-up, 113 ovarian cancers were ascertained. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios.


After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with no physical activity, the hazard ratios for levels of total physical activity were 1.56 (95% CI: 0.81, 3.00) for low level, 1.92 (1.07, 3.45) for medium level, and 2.21 (1.16, 4.24) for high level (test for trend, p = 0.01). The hazard ratio for ovarian cancer in relation to BMI was 1.22 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.48; p-trend, 0.06) per 5 kg/m2 increment, and for fat mass, 1.23 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.49; p-trend, 0.04) per 10 kg increment.


This study found some evidence for a possible relationship between higher levels of physical activity and body size and increased ovarian cancer risk.


Physical activity Anthropometry Ovarian cancer Body mass index Cohort study 



This study was made possible by the contribution of many people, including the original investigators, the Program Manager, Ms Georgina Marr, and the diligent team who recruited the participants and who continue working on follow-up. We would like to express our gratitude to the many thousands of Melbourne residents who continue to participate in the study. VicHealth and The Cancer Council Victoria funded cohort recruitment. This study was funded by grants from the National Health and Medical Research Council (251533, 209057) and was further supported by infrastructure provided by The Cancer Council Victoria. JLH is a NHMRC Australia Fellow. RJM is a Sidney Sax Post Doctoral Research Fellow of the NHMRC. VicHealth and The Cancer Council Victoria funded cohort recruitment. This study was funded by grants from the National Health and Medical Research Council (251533, 209057) and was further supported by infrastructure provided by The Cancer Council Victoria. JLH is a NHMRC Australia Fellow. RJM is a Sidney Sax Post Doctoral Research Fellow of the NHMRC.


  1. 1.
    Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P (2005) Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 55:74–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sankaranarayanan R, Ferlay J (2006) Worldwide burden of gynaecological cancer: the size of the problem. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 20:207–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Werness BA, Eltabbakh GH (2001) Familial ovarian cancer and early ovarian cancer: biologic, pathologic, and clinical features. Int J Gynecol Path 20:48–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pharoah PD, Ponder BA (2002) The genetics of ovarian cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 16:449–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boyd J (2003) Specific keynote: hereditary ovarian cancer: what we know. Gynecol Oncol 88:S8–S10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Robles-Diaz L, Goldfrank DJ, Kauff ND, Robson M, Offit K (2004) Hereditary ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews. Fam Cancer 3:259–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aarnio M, Sankila R, Pukkala E et al (1999) Cancer risk in mutation carriers of DNA-mismatch-repair genes. Int J Cancer 81:214–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Whittemore AS, Harris R, Itnyre J (1992) Characteristics relating to ovarian cancer risk: collaborative analysis of 12 US case-control studies. II. Invasive epithelial ovarian cancers in white women. Collaborative Ovarian Cancer Group. Am J Epidemiol 136:1184–1203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Franceschi S, Parazzini F, Negri E et al (1991) Pooled analysis of 3 European case-control studies of epithelial ovarian cancer: III. Oral contraceptive use. Int J Cancer 49:61–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Riman T, Persson I, Nilsson S (1998) Hormonal aspects of epithelial ovarian cancer: review of epidemiological evidence. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 49:695–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Spencer TL, Rosner B, Stampfer MJ (1992) A quantitative assessment of oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol 80:708–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ness RB, Grisso JA, Klapper J et al (2000) Risk of ovarian cancer in relation to estrogen and progestin dose and use characteristics of oral contraceptives. SHARE Study Group. Steroid Hormones and Reproductions. Am J Epidemiol 152:233–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Weiss NS, Harlow BL (1986) Why does hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy influence the subsequent incidence of ovarian cancer? Am J Epidemiol 124:856–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Irwin KL, Weiss NS, Lee NC, Peterson HB (1991) Tubal sterilization, hysterectomy, and the subsequent occurrence of epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiol 134:362–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Whittemore AS, Wu ML, Paffenbarger RS Jr et al (1989) Epithelial ovarian cancer and the ability to conceive. Cancer Res 49:4047–4052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cramer DW, Xu H (1995) Epidemiologic evidence for uterine growth factors in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Ann Epidemiol 5:310–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hankinson SE, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA et al (1993) Tubal ligation, hysterectomy, and risk of ovarian cancer. A prospective study. JAMA 270:2813–2818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Miracle-McMahill HL, Calle EE, Kosinski AS et al (1997) Tubal ligation and fatal ovarian cancer in a large prospective cohort study. Am J Epidemiol 145:349–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Loft A, Lidegaard O, Tabor A (1997) Incidence of ovarian cancer after hysterectomy: a nationwide controlled follow up. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104:1296–1301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kreiger N, Sloan M, Cotterchio M, Parsons P (1997) Surgical procedures associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Int J Epidemiol 26:710–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rosenblatt KA, Thomas DB (1996) Reduced risk of ovarian cancer in women with a tubal ligation or hysterectomy. The World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5:933–935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Russell JB, Mitchell D, Musey PI, Collins DC (1984) The relationship of exercise to anovulatory cycles in female athletes: hormonal and physical characteristics. Obstet Gynecol 63:452–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sternfeld B, Jacobs MK, Quesenberry CP Jr, Gold EB, Sowers M (2002) Physical activity and menstrual cycle characteristics in two prospective cohorts. Am J Epidemiol 156:402–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kramer MM, Wells CL (1996) Does physical activity reduce risk of estrogen-dependent cancer in women? Med Sci Sports Exerc 28:322–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Campbell KL, McTiernan A (2007) Exercise and biomarkers for cancer prevention studies. J Nutr 137:161S–169SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ford ES (2002) Does exercise reduce inflammation?. Physical activity and C-reactive protein among U.S. adults. Epidemiology 13:561–568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ness RB, Cottreau C (1999) Possible role of ovarian epithelial inflammation in ovarian cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 91:1459–1467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    De Souza MJ (2003) Menstrual disturbances in athletes: a focus on luteal phase defects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:1553–1563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cannavò S, Curtò L, Trimarchi F (2001) Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction. J Endocrinol Invest 24:823–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shephard RJ, Shek PN (1995) Cancer, immune function, and physical activity. Can J Appl Physiol 20:1–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Olsen CM, Bain CJ, Jordan SJ et al (2007) Recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer: a case-control study, systematic review, and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:2321–2330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Anderson JP, Ross JA, Folsom AR (2004) Anthropometric variables, physical activity, and incidence of ovarian cancer: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer 100:1515–1521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bertone ER, Willett WC, Rosner BA et al (2001) Prospective study of recreational physical activity and ovarian cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 93:942–948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Khaw KT, Barrett-Connor E (1991) Fasting plasma glucose levels and endogenous androgens in non-diabetic postmenopausal women. Clin Sci (Lond) 80:199–203Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pasquali R (2006) Obesity and androgens: facts and perspectives. Fertil Steril 85:1319–1340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Key TJ, Allen NE, Verkasalo PK, Banks E (2001) Energy balance and cancer: the role of sex hormones. Proc Nutr Soc 60:81–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Calle EE, Kaaks R (2004) Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer 4:579–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lukanova A, Lundin E, Toniolo P et al (2002) Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer 101:549–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Olsen CM, Green AC, Whiteman DC, Sadeghi S, Kolahdooz F, Webb PM (2007) Obesity and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer 43:690–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Giles GG (1990) The Melbourne study of diet and cancer. Proc Nutr Soc Aust 15:61–68Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ireland P, Jolley D, Giles G et al (1994) Development of the Melbourne FFQ: a food frequency questionnaire for use in an Australian prospective study involving an ethnically diverse cohort. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 3:19–31Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lewis J, Milligan G, Hunt A (1995) NUTTAB 95 nutrient data table for use in Australia. Australian Government Publishing Service, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Korn EL, Graubard BI, Midthune D (1997) Time-to-event analysis of longitudinal follow-up of a survey: choice of the time-scale. Am J Epidemiol 145:72–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kirkwood BR, Sterne JAC (2003) Regression analysis of survival data. In: essential medical statistics, 2nd edn. Blackwell Science, Massachusetts, pp 287–294Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Roubenoff R, Baumgartner RN, Harris TB et al (1997) Application of bioelectrical impedance analysis to elderly populations. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 52:M129–M136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    WHO Expert Committee. Physical Status (1995) The use and interpretation of anthropometry. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Risk Factor Prevalence Management Committee (1990) Risk factor prevalence study: survey number 3, 1989. National Heart Foundation of Australia and Australian Institute of Health, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Booth ML, Owen N, Bauman AE, Gore CJ (1996) Retest reliability of recall measures of leisure-time physical activity in Australian adults. Int J Epidemiol 25:153–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Booth ML, Owen N, Bauman A, Gore CJ (1996) Relationship between a 14-day recall measure of leisure-time physical activity and a submaximal test of physical work capacity in a population sample of Australian adults. Res Q Exerc Sport 67:221–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pan SY, Ugnat A, Mao Y et al (2005) Physical activity and the risk of ovarian cancer: a case-control study in Canada. Int J Cancer 117:300–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Riman T, Dickman PW, Nilsson S, Nordlinder H, Magnusson CM, Persson IR (2004) Some life-style factors and the risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer in Swedish women. Eur J Epidemiol 19:1011–1019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tavani A, Gallus S, La Vecchia C et al (2001) Physical activity and risk of ovarian cancer: an Italian case-control study. Int J Cancer 91:407–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cottreau CM, Ness RB, Kriska AM (2000) Physical activity and reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol 96:609–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Weiderpass E, Margolis KL, Sandin S et al (2006) Prospective study of physical activity in different periods of life and the risk of ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer 118:3153–3160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bertone ER, Newcomb PA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Egan KM (2002) Recreational physical activity and ovarian cancer in a population-based case-control study. Int J Cancer 99:431–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Patel AV, Rodriguez C, Pavluck AL, Thun MJ, Calle EE (2006) Recreational physical activity and sedentary behaviour in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a large cohort of US women. Am J Epidemiol 163:709–716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lahmann PH, Friedenreich C, Schulz M et al (2009) Physical activity and ovarian cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:351–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Leitzmann MF, Koebnick C, Moore SC et al (2009) Prospective study of physical activity and the risk of ovarian cancer. Cancer Causes Control 20:765–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bull FC, Bauman AE, Bellew B, Brown WJ (2004) Getting Australia active II: an update of evidence on physical activity. National Public Health Partnership, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lee IM (2003) Physical activity and cancer prevention—data from epidemiologic studies. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:1823–1827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Slattery ML, Edwards SL, Ma KN, Friedman GD, Potter JD (1997) Physical activity and colon cancer: a public health perspective. Ann Epidemiol 7:137–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    International Agency for Research in Cancer Working Group on the Evaluation of Cancer-preventive Strategies (IARC Working Group) (2002) Handbooks of cancer prevention. Volume 6: weight control and physical activity. IARC Press, LyonGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Reeves GK, Pirie K, Beral V, Green J, Spencer E, Bull D, Million Women Study Collaboration (2007) Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. BMJ 335:1134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Leitzmann MF, Koebnick C, Danforth KN et al (2009) Body mass index and risk of ovarian cancer. Cancer 115:812–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lacey JV Jr, Leitzmann M, Brinton LA et al (2006) Weight, height, and body mass index and risk for ovarian cancer in a cohort study. Ann Epidemiol 16:869–876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lahmann PH, Cust AE, Friedenreich CM et al (2010) Anthropometric measures and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Int J Cancer 126:2404–2415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dal Maso L, Franceschi S, Negri E et al (2002) Body size indices at different ages and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Eur J Cancer 38:1769–1774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hoyo C, Berchuck A, Halabi S et al (2005) Anthropometric measurements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in African-American and White women. Cancer Causes Control 16:955–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Engeland A, Tretli S, Bjørge T (2003) Height, body mass index, and ovarian cancer: a follow-up of 1.1 million Norwegian women. J Natl Cancer Inst 95:1244–1248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rapp K, Schroeder J, Klenk J et al (2005) Obesity and incidence of cancer: a large cohort study of over 145, 000 adults in Austria. Br J Cancer 93:1062–1067PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lukanova A, Björ O, Kaaks R et al (2006) Body mass index and cancer: results from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Cohort. Int J Cancer 118:458–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schouten LJ, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA (2003) Height, weight, weight change, and ovarian cancer risk in the Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer. Am J Epidemiol 157:424–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jonsson F, Wolk A, Pedersen N et al (2003) Obesity and hormone-dependent tumors: cohort and co-twin control studies based on the Swedish Twin Registry. Int J Cancer 106:594–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Baer HJ, Hankinson SE, Tworoger SS (2008) Body size in early life and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: results from the Nurses’ Health Studies. Br J Cancer 99:1916–1922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gunnell D, Okasha M, Smith GD, Oliver SE, Sandhu J, Holly JM (2001) Height, leg length, and cancer risk: a systematic review. Epidemiol Rev 23:313–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rossing MA, Cushing-Haugen KL, Wicklund KG, Doherty JA, Weiss NS (2009) Recreational physical activity and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Causes Control 21:485–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Olsen CM, Nagle CM, Whiteman DC, Purdie DM, Green AC, Webb PM (2008) Body size and risk of epithelial ovarian and related cancers: a population-based case-control study. Int J Cancer 123:450–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Greer JB, Modugno F, Ness RB, Allen GO (2006) Anthropometry and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer 106:2247–2257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mills PK, Riordan DG, Cress RD (2004) Epithelial ovarian cancer risk by invasiveness and cell type in the Central Valley of California. Gynecol Oncol 95:215–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kuper H, Cramer DW, Titus-Ernstoff L (2002) Risk of ovarian cancer in the United States in relation to anthropometric measures: does the association depend on menopausal status? Cancer Causes Control 13:455–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Purdie DM, Bain CJ, Webb PM, Whiteman DC, Pirozzo S, Green AC (2001) Body size and ovarian cancer: case-control study and systematic review (Australia). Cancer Causes Control 12:855–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Farrow DC, Weiss NS, Lyon JL, Daling JR (1989) Association of obesity and ovarian cancer in a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 129:1300–1304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Soegaard M, Jensen A, Hogdall E et al (2007) Different risk factor profiles for mucinous and nonmucinous ovarian cancer: results from the Danish MALOVA study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1160–1166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fairfield KM, Willett WC, Rosner BA, Manson JE, Speizer FE, Hankinson SE (2002) Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol 100:288–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kurian AW, Balise RR, McGuire V, Whittemore AS (2005) Histologic types of epithelial ovarian cancer: have they different risk factors? Gynecol Oncol 96:520–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Schouten LJ, Rivera C, Hunter DJ et al (2008) Height, body mass index, and ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17:902–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Godwin AK, Perez RP, Johnson SW, Hamaguchi K, Hamilton TC (1992) Growth regulation of ovarian cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 6:829–841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cramer DW, Welch WR (1983) Determinants of ovarian cancer risk. II. Inferences regarding pathogenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst 71:717–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Coyle YM (2008) Physical activity as a negative modulator of estrogen-induced breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 19:1021–1029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Helzlsouer KJ, Alberg AJ, Gordon GB et al (1995) Serum gonadotropins and steroid hormones and the development of ovarian cancer. JAMA 274:1926–1930PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Yen SS (1994) Endocrinology of pregnancy. In: Creasy RK, Rensik R (eds) Maternal-fetal medicine: principles and practice. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 382–412Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    King RJ (1991) Biology of female sex hormone action in relation to contraceptive agents and neoplasia. Contraception 43:527–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gabra H, Taylor L, Cohen BB et al (1995) Chromosome 11 allele imbalance and clinicopathological correlates in ovarian tumours. Br J Cancer 72:367–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Davis M, Hitchcock A, Foulkes WD, Campbell IG (1996) Refinement of two chromosome 11q regions of loss of heterozygosity in ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 56:741–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gabra H, Watson JE, Taylor KJ et al (1996) Definition and refinement of a region of loss of heterozygosity at 11q23.3–q24.3 in epithelial ovarian cancer associated with poor prognosis. Cancer Res 56:950–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ho SM (2003) Estrogen, progesterone and epithelial ovarian cancer. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 1:73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ellison PT, Lager C (1986) Moderate recreational running is associated with lowered salivary progesterone profiles in women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 154:1000–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mathur RS, Neff MR, Landgrebe SC et al (1986) Time-related changes in the plasma concentrations of prolactin, gonadotropins, sex hormone-binding globulin, and certain steroid hormones in female runners after a long-distance race. Fertil Steril 46:1067–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shangold MM, Gatz ML, Thysen B (1981) Acute effects of exercise on plasma concentrations of prolactin and testosterone in recreational women runners. Fertil Steril 35:699–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Dunn SE, Kari FW, French J et al (1997) Dietary restriction reduces insulin-like growth factor I levels, which modulates apoptosis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression in p53-deficient mice. Cancer Res 57:4667–4672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ng ST, Zhou J, Adesanya OO, Wang J, LeRoith D, Bondy CA (1997) Growth hormone treatment induces mammary gland hyperplasia in aging primates. Nat Med 3:1141–1144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Cianfarani S, Tedeschi B, Germani D et al (1998) In vitro effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and -II) on chromosome fragility and p53 protein expression in human lymphocytes. Eur J Clin Invest 28:41–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Singh KB, Mahajan DK, Wortsman J (1994) Effect of obesity on the clinical and hormonal characteristics of the polycystic ovary syndrome. J Reprod Med 39:805–808PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schildkraut JM, Schwingl PJ, Bastos E, Evanoff A, Hughes C (1996) Epithelial ovarian cancer risk among women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 88:554–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fiona Chionh
    • 1
  • Laura Baglietto
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kavitha Krishnan
    • 1
  • Dallas R. English
    • 1
    • 2
  • Robert J. MacInnis
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Dorota M. Gertig
    • 4
  • John L. Hopper
    • 2
  • Graham G. Giles
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Cancer Epidemiology CentreThe Cancer Council VictoriaCarltonAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Genetic EpidemiologyUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Cancer Research UK Genetic Epidemiology UnitUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  4. 4.Victorian Cytology ServiceMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations