Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 20, Issue 10, pp 1881–1892 | Cite as

Disparities in survival after Hodgkin lymphoma: a population-based study

  • Theresa H. M. Keegan
  • Christina A. Clarke
  • Ellen T. Chang
  • Sarah J. Shema
  • Sally L. Glaser
Original paper


Survival after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is generally favorable, but may vary by patient demographic characteristics. The authors examined HL survival according to race/ethnicity and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), determined from residential census-block group at diagnosis. For 12,492 classical HL patients ≥15 years diagnosed in California during 1988–2006 and followed through 2007, we determined risk of overall and HL-specific death using Cox proportional hazards regression; analyses were stratified by age and Ann Arbor stage. Irrespective of disease stage, patients with lower neighborhood SES had worse overall and HL-specific survival than patients with higher SES. Patients with the lowest quintile of neighborhood SES had a 64% (patients aged 15–44 years) and 36% (≥45 years) increased risk of HL-death compared to patients with the highest quintile of SES; SES results were similar for overall survival. Even after adjustment for neighborhood SES, blacks and Hispanics had increased risks of HL-death 74% and 43% (15–44 years) and 40% and 17% (≥45 years), respectively, higher than white patients. The racial/ethnic differences in survival were evident for all stages of disease. These data provide evidence for substantial, and probably remediable, racial/ethnic and neighborhood SES disparities in HL outcomes.


Hodgkin disease Survival Mortality Social class Census 



The authors thank Laura A. McClure and Sandra J. Horning for their contributions to this work.

Financial support

This work was supported in part by National Cancer Institute funds from R03 CA117454 (T. H. K.) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results contract N01-PC-35136. The collection of cancer incidence data used in this study was supported by the California Department of Health Services as part of the statewide cancer reporting program mandated by California Health and Safety Code Sect. 103885; the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program under contract N01-PC-35136 awarded to the Northern California Cancer Center; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Program of Cancer Registries, under agreement #U55/CCR921930-02 awarded to the Public Health Institute. The ideas and opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and endorsement by the State of California, Department of Health Services, the National Cancer Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or their contractors and subcontractors is not intended nor should be inferred.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theresa H. M. Keegan
    • 1
  • Christina A. Clarke
    • 1
  • Ellen T. Chang
    • 1
  • Sarah J. Shema
    • 1
  • Sally L. Glaser
    • 1
  1. 1.Northern California Cancer CenterFremontUSA

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