Daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes in relation to serum hormones and sex hormone binding globulin, and urinary estrogen metabolites in premenopausal women in the United States
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Blood and urine concentrations of hormones are implicated in the etiology of some cancers. Small studies have assessed relationships between production of the daidzein metabolites equol and O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA) and hormones, but findings are unclear. We evaluated relationships between daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes and follicular phase concentrations of estrogens, androgens, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and urinary estrogen metabolites in premenopausal women.
Two-hundred women collected a first-void urine sample after a 3-day soy challenge, and 191 and 193 provided fasting blood and spot urine samples, respectively, during days 5–9 of their menstrual cycle. Soy challenge urines were analyzed for isoflavones; serum was analyzed for estrogens, androgens, and SHBG; spot urines were analyzed for 2-hydroxyestrone and 16α-hydroxyestrone. Data were log-transformed and multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess relationships between daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes and hormones and SHBG. Data from 187 and 189 women were included in analyses of serum and urine hormones, respectively.
55 (27.5%) and 182 (91%) of the 200 women who provided a soy challenge urine sample were equol- and ODMA-producers (>87.5 ng/ml urine), respectively. In unadjusted analyses, equol-producers (n = 52) had lower free testosterone than equol non-producers (n = 137, p = 0.02). In adjusted analyses, there were no differences between producers and non-producers of either daidzein metabolite.
In the absence of a soy intervention, we found no difference in serum or urine hormone concentrations between producers and non-producers of equol or ODMA.
KeywordsAndrogens Equol Estrogens Isoflavones O-desmethylangolensin
We wish to thank Kathy Plant, Kelly Ehrlich, and the GH group for screening interviews, clinic visits and study coordination, Wendy Thomas for isoflavone analyses, JoAnn Prunty for creatinine analyses, and all of the study participants.
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