Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 18, Issue 10, pp 1065–1076 | Cite as

Diet and risk of multiple myeloma in Connecticut women

  • H. Dean HosgoodIII
  • Dalsu Baris
  • Shelia Hoar Zahm
  • Tongzhang Zheng
  • Amanda J. Cross
Original Paper


Multiple myeloma accounts for an estimated 19,900 incident cancer cases per year in the United States. A population-based case–control study, consisting of 179 incident cases and 691 controls, was conducted to examine the impact of diet on multiple myeloma risk. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P-trends were calculated across quartiles of consumption. After controlling for potential confounders, we observed inverse associations for cooked tomatoes (P-trend = 0.002), cruciferous vegetables (P-trend = 0.01), fresh fish (P-trend < 0.001), alcohol (P-trend < 0.001), and vitamin A (P-trend < 0.001) with multiple myeloma risk. In contrast, consumption of cream soups (P-trend = 0.01), jello (P-trend = 0.01), ice cream (P-trend = 0.01), and pudding (P-trend < 0.001) were positively associated with multiple myeloma. Furthermore, there was a suggestion that carbohydrate intake may be positively associated, whereas vitamin D and calcium intake may be inversely associated, with multiple myeloma risk. Despite very limited data on dietary factors in relation to multiple myeloma, the findings from this study concur with previously published studies, suggesting an inverse association for consumption of fish, cruciferous vegetables and green vegetables, and a positive association for some dairy products.


Multiple myeloma Case–control Diet Risk factors 



This work was supported in part by the Yale University—National Cancer Institute Partnership Pre-Doctoral Fellowship Training Program (NCI TU2 CA105666).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Dean HosgoodIII
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dalsu Baris
    • 1
  • Shelia Hoar Zahm
    • 1
  • Tongzhang Zheng
    • 2
  • Amanda J. Cross
    • 1
  1. 1.Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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