Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 148, Issue 4, pp 721–740 | Cite as

How does the Perceived Ethicality of Corporate Services Brands Influence Loyalty and Positive Word-of-Mouth? Analyzing the Roles of Empathy, Affective Commitment, and Perceived Quality

  • Stefan Markovic
  • Oriol Iglesias
  • Jatinder Jit Singh
  • Vicenta Sierra
Article

Abstract

In the past few decades, a growth in ethical consumerism has led brands to increasingly develop conscientiousness and depict ethical image at a corporate level. However, most of the research studying business ethics in the field of corporate brand management is either conceptual or has been empirically conducted in relation to goods/products contexts. This is surprising because corporate brands are more relevant in services contexts, because of the distinct nature of services (i.e., intangible, heterogeneous, and inseparable) and the key role that employees have in the services sector (i.e., they can build or break the brand when interacting with customers). Accordingly, this article aims at empirically examining the effects of customer perceived ethicality in the context of corporate services brands. Based on data collected for eight service categories using a panel of 2179 customers, the hypothesized structural model is tested using path analysis. The results show that, in addition to a direct effect, customer perceived ethicality has a positive and indirect effect on customer loyalty, through the mediators of customer affective commitment and customer perceived quality. Further, employee empathy positively influences the impact of customer perceived ethicality on customer affective commitment, and customer loyalty positively impacts customer positive word-of-mouth. The first implication of these results is that corporate brand strategy needs to be aligned with human resources policies and practices if brands want to turn ethical strategies into employee behavior. Second, corporate brands should build more authentic communications grounded in their ethical beliefs and supported by evidence from actual employees.

Keywords

Common method variance Corporate services brands Customer perceived ethicality Employee empathy Generalizability theory Word-of-mouth 

List of Abbreviations

AVE

Average variance extracted

CAC

Customer affective commitment

CFA

Confirmatory factor analysis

CL

Customer loyalty

CMV

Common method variance

CPE

Customer perceived ethicality

CPQ

Customer perceived quality

CPWOM

Customer positive word-of-mouth

CR

Composite reliability

CSR

Corporate social responsibility

EE

Employee empathy

GC

Generalizability coefficient

G-theory

Generalizability theory

PLS

Partial least squares

References

  1. Aaker, D. A. (1996). Measuring brand equity across products and markets. California Management Review, 38(3), 102–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aggarwal, P., Castleberry, S. B., Ridnour, R., & Shepherd, C. D. (2005). Salesperson empathy and listening: Impact on relationship outcomes. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 13(3), 16–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agnihotri, R., & Krush, M. T. (2015). Salesperson empathy, ethical behaviors, and sales performance: the moderating role of trust in one’s manager. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 35(2), 164–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahearne, M., Jelinek, R., & Jones, E. (2007). Examining the effect of salesperson service behavior in a competitive context. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35(4), 603–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Athanassopoulos, A., Gounaris, S., & Stathakopoulos, V. (2001). Behavioural responses to customer satisfaction: an empirical study. European Journal of Marketing, 35(5/6), 687–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aurier, P., & Séré de Lanauze, G. (2012). Impacts of perceived brand relationship orientation on attitudinal loyalty: An application to strong brands in the packaged goods sector. European Journal of Marketing, 46(11/12), 1602–1627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aydin, S., & Özer, G. (2005). The analysis of antecedents of customer loyalty in the Turkish mobile telecommunication market. European Journal of Marketing, 39(7/8), 910–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagozzi, R. P., & Moore, D. J. (1994). Public service advertisements: Emotions and empathy guide prosocial behavior. The Journal of Marketing, 58(1), 56–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baker, D. A., & Crompton, J. L. (2000). Quality, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 785–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Balmer, J. M. T. (2001). The three virtues and seven deadly sins of corporate brand management. Journal of General Management, 27(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Balmer, J. M. T. (2010). Explicating corporate brands and their management: Reflections and directions from 1995. Journal of Brand Management, 18(3), 180–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barrett-Lennard, G. T. (1981). The empathy cycle: Refinement of a nuclear concept. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28(2), 91–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bateson, J. E., & Hoffman, K. G. (2002). Essential of service marketing: Concepts, strategy, and cases. Harcourt, 19(4), 491–504.Google Scholar
  15. Batson, C. D., & Shaw, L. L. (1991). Evidence for altruism: Toward a pluralism of prosocial motives. Psychological Inquiry, 2(2), 107–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beatty, S. E., Mayer, M., Coleman, J. E., Reynolds, K. E., & Lee, J. (1996). Customer-sales associate retail relationships. Journal of Retailing, 72(3), 223–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bernardo, M., Llach, J., Marimon, F., & Alonso-Almeida, M. M. (2013). The balance of the impact of quality and recovery on satisfaction: The case of e-travel. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 24(12), 1390–1404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Berry, L. L. (1980). Services marketing is different. Business, 30(3), 24–29.Google Scholar
  19. Berry, L. L. (1983). Relationship Marketing. In L. L. Berry, G. L. Shostack, & G. D. Upah (Eds.), Emerging Perspectives on Services Marketing (pp. 25–28). Chicago: American Marketing Association.Google Scholar
  20. Berry, L. L., Parasuraman, A., & Zeithaml, V. A. (1994). Improving service quality in America: lessons learned. The Academy of Management Executive, 8(2), 32–45.Google Scholar
  21. Bloemer, J., De Ruyter, K., & Peeters, P. (1998). Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: the complex relationship between image, service quality and satisfaction. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 16(7), 276–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bloemer, J., & Odekeren-Schroder, G. (2003). Antecedents and consequences of affective commitment. Australasian Marketing Journal, 11(3), 33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Booms, B. H., & Bitner, M. J. (1981). Marketing strategies and organization structures for service firms. Marketing of Services, 25(3), 47–52.Google Scholar
  24. Bowden, J. L. H. (2011). Engaging the student as a customer: A relationship marketing approach. Marketing Education Review, 21(3), 211–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brammer, S., Millington, A., & Rayton, B. (2007). The contribution of corporate social responsibility to organizational commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(10), 1701–1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brodie, R. J. (2009). From goods to service branding: An integrative perspective. Marketing Theory, 9(1), 107–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brown, T. J., & Dacin, P. A. (1997). The company and the product: Corporate associations and consumer product responses. The Journal of Marketing, 61(1), 68–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brunk, K. H. (2010a). Exploring origins of ethical company/brand perceptions—a consumer perspective of corporate ethics. Journal of Business Research, 63(3), 255–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brunk, K. H. (2010b). Exploring origins of ethical company/brand perceptions—reply to Shea and Cohn’s commentaries. Journal of Business Research, 63(12), 1364–1367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brunk, K. H. (2012). Un/ethical company and brand perceptions: Conceptualising and operationalising consumer meanings. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(4), 551–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brunk, K. H., & Blümelhuber, C. (2011). One strike and you’re out: Qualitative insights into the formation of consumers’ ethical company or brand perceptions. Journal of Business Research, 64(2), 134–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Burmann, C., & Zeplin, S. (2005). Building brand commitment: A behavioural approach to internal brand management. The Journal of Brand Management, 12(4), 279–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Buzzell, R. D., & Gale, B. T. (1987). The PIMS Principles. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  34. Carrigan, M., & Attalla, A. (2001). The myth of the ethical consumer—do ethics matter in purchase behaviour? Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(7), 560–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Casidy, R. (2014). Linking brand orientation with service quality, satisfaction, and positive word-of-mouth: Evidence from the higher education sector. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 26(2), 142–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Casidy, R., & Wymer, W. (2015). The impact of brand strength on satisfaction, loyalty and WOM: An empirical examination in the higher education sector. Journal of Brand Management, 22(2), 117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Čater, T., & Čater, B. (2010). Product and relationship quality influence on customer commitment and loyalty in B2B manufacturing relationships. Industrial Marketing Management, 39(8), 1321–1333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: the role of brand loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chen, P. T., & Hu, H. H. S. (2013). The mediating role of relational benefit between service quality and customer loyalty in airline industry. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 24(9), 1084–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chen, C. C., & Jaramillo, F. (2014). The double-edged effects of emotional intelligence on the adaptive selling–salesperson-owned loyalty relationship. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 34(1), 33–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Choi, B., & Choi, B. J. (2014). The effects of perceived service recovery justice on customer affection, loyalty, and word-of-mouth. European Journal of Marketing, 48(1/2), 108–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chomvilailuk, R., & Butcher, K. (2010). Enhancing Brand preference through corporate social responsibility initiatives in the Thai banking sector. Asia-Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 22(3), 397–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chomvilailuk, R., & Butcher, K. (2014). Effects of quality and corporate social responsibility on loyalty. The Service Industries Journal, 34(11), 938–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Choudhury, K. (2014). Service quality and word of mouth: a study of the banking sector. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 32(7), 612–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Coke, J. S., Batson, C. D., & McDavis, K. (1978). Empathic mediation of helping: A two-stage model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(7), 752–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Correia, S. M. (2014). The effect of perceived benefits, trust, quality, brand awareness/associations and brand loyalty on internet banking brand equity. International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies, 4(2), 139–158.Google Scholar
  47. Cronbach, L. J., Gleser, G. C., Nanda, H., & Rajaratnam, N. (1972). The dependability of behavioral measurements: Theory of generalizability for scores and profiles. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  48. Cronin, J. J, Jr, Brady, M. K., & Hult, T. M. (2000). Assessing the Effects of Quality, Value, and Customer Satisfaction on Consumer Behavioral Intentions in Service Environments. Journal of Retailing, 76(2), 193–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Crosby, P. B. (1979). Quality is Free. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  50. Currás, R. (2009). Effects of perceived identity based on corporate social responsibility: the role of consumer identification with the company. Corporate Reputation Review, 12(2), 177–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dagger, T. S., David, M. E., & Ng, S. (2011). Do relationship benefits and maintenance drive commitment and loyalty? Journal of Services Marketing, 25(4), 273–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dall’Olmo Riley, F., & de Chernatony, L. (2000). The service brand as relationships builder. British Journal of Management, 11(2), 137–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Daniels, K., Glover, J., & Mellor, N. (2014). An experience sampling study of expressing affect, daily affective well-being, relationship quality, and perceived performance. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(4), 781–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Davies, G., Chun, R., & Kamins, M. A. (2010). Reputation gaps and the performance of service organizations. Strategic Management Journal, 31(5), 530–546.Google Scholar
  55. Davis, M. H. (1996). Empathy: A Social Psychological Approach. Boulder CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  56. Davis-Sramek, B., Droge, C., Mentzer, J. T., & Myers, M. B. (2009). Creating commitment and loyalty behavior among retailers: what are the roles of service quality and satisfaction? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37(4), 440–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dawson, L. E., Soper, B., & Pettijohn, C. E. (1992). The effects of empathy on salesperson effectiveness. Psychology and Marketing, 9(4), 297–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dick, A. S., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Duan, C., & Hill, C. E. (1996). The Current State of Empathy Research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(3), 261–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Efron, B. (1979). Bootstrap methods: another look at the jackknife. The Annals of Statistics, 7(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Eiglier, P., & Langeard, E. (1977). A new approach to service marketing. In P. Eiglier, E. Langeard, C. H. Lovelock, J. E. G. Bateson, & R. F. Young (Eds.), Marketing Consumer Services: New Insights (pp. 33–58). Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute.Google Scholar
  62. Evanschitzky, H., Iyer, G. R., Plassmann, H., Niessing, J., & Meffert, H. (2006). The relative strength of affective commitment in securing loyalty in service relationships. Journal of Business Research, 59(12), 1207–1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fan, Y. (2005). Ethical branding and corporate reputation. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 10(4), 341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fullerton, G. (2005). How commitment both enables and undermines marketing relationships. European Journal of Marketing, 39(11/12), 1372–1388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. García de los Salmones, M., Herrero Crespo, A., & Rodríguez del Bosque, I. (2005). Influence of corporate social responsibility on loyalty and valuation of services. Journal of Business Ethics, 61(4), 369–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Giacobbe, R. W., Jackson, D. W, Jr, Crosby, L. A., & Bridges, C. M. (2006). A contingency approach to adaptive selling behavior and sales performance: Selling situations and salesperson characteristics. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 26(2), 115–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Goldstein, A. P., & Michaels, G. Y. (1985). Empathy: Development, training, and consequences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  69. Gounaris, S., & Stathakopoulos, V. (2004). Antecedents and consequences of brand loyalty: An empirical study. The Journal of Brand Management, 11(4), 283–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gremler, D. D., Gwinner, K. P., & Brown, S. W. (2001). Generating positive word-of-mouth communication through customer-employee relationships. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12(1), 44–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Griffin, J. (2002). Customer loyalty: How to earn it, how to keep it. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  72. Grönroos, C. (1990). Relationship approach to marketing in service contexts: The marketing and organizational behavior interface. Journal of Business Research, 20(1), 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Grönroos, C. (2006). Adopting a service logic for marketing. Marketing Theory, 6(3), 317–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gruen, T., Summers, J., & Acito, F. (2000). Relationship marketing activities, commitment and membership behaviors in professional associations. Journal of Marketing, 64(3), 34–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gump, B. B., & Kulik, J. A. (1997). Stress, affiliation, and emotional contagion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(2), 305–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gundlach, G. T., Achrol, R. S., & Mentzer, J. T. (1995). The structure of commitment in exchange. The Journal of Marketing, 59(1), 78–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gustafsson, C. (2005). Trust as an instance of asymmetrical reciprocity: an ethics perspective on corporate brand management. Business Ethics: A European Review, 14(2), 142–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ha, H. Y., & John, J. (2010). Role of customer orientation in an integrative model of brand loyalty in services. The Service Industries Journal, 30(7), 1025–1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hagel, J., & Armstrong, A. (1997). Net gain: Expanding markets through virtual communities. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  80. Harris, F., & De Chernatony, L. (2001). Corporate branding and corporate brand performance. European Journal of Marketing, 35(3/4), 441–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hartline, M. D., & Jones, K. C. (1996). Employee performance cues in a hotel service environment: Influence on perceived service quality, value, and word-of-mouth intentions. Journal of Business Research, 35(3), 207–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1994). Emotional contagion. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  83. He, Y., & Lai, K. K. (2014). The effect of corporate social responsibility on brand loyalty: the mediating role of brand image. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 25(3), 249–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. He, H., & Li, Y. (2011). CSR and service brand: The mediating effect of brand identification and moderating effect of service quality. Journal of Business Ethics, 100(4), 673–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hennig-Thurau, T. (2004). Customer orientation of service employees: Its impact on customer satisfaction, commitment, and retention. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(5), 460–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hess, J., & Story, J. (2005). Trust-based commitment: multidimensional consumer-brand relationships. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(6), 313–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hightower, R., Brady, M. K., & Baker, T. L. (2002). Investigating the role of the physical environment in hedonic service consumption: An exploratory study of sporting events. Journal of Business Research, 55(9), 697–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Holjevac, I. A. (2008). Business ethics in tourism–as a dimension of TQM. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 19(10), 1029–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Homburg, C., & Stock, R. M. (2005). Exploring the conditions under which salesperson work satisfaction can lead to customer satisfaction. Psychology and Marketing, 22(5), 393–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Homburg, C., Wieseke, J., & Bornemann, T. (2009). Implementing the marketing concept at the employee-customer interface: the role of customer need knowledge. Journal of Marketing, 73(4), 64–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Howard, D. J., & Gengler, C. (2001). Emotional contagion effects on product attitudes. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(2), 189–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hsiao, C. H., Shen, G. C., & Chao, P. J. (2015). How does brand misconduct affect the brand-customer relationship? Journal of Business Research, 68(4), 862–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hsu, L. C., Wang, K. Y., & Chih, W. H. (2013). Effects of web site characteristics on customer loyalty in B2B e-commerce: evidence from Taiwan. The Service Industries Journal, 33(11), 1026–1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hutchinson, D., Singh, J., Svensson, G., & Mysen, T. (2013). Towards a model of conscientious corporate brands: a Canadian study. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 28(8), 687–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Iacobucci, D., Grayson, K., & Ostrom, A. (1994). Customer Satisfaction Fables. MIT Sloan Management Review, 35(4), 93–96.Google Scholar
  96. Iglesias, O., Ind, N., & Alfaro, M. (2013). The organic view of the brand: A brand value co-creation model. Journal of Brand Management, 20(8), 670–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Iglesias, O., & Saleem, F. Z. (2015). How to support consumer-brand relationships: The role of corporate culture and human resource policies and practices. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 33(2), 216–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Iglesias, O., Singh, J. J., & Batista-Foguet, J. M. (2011). The role of brand experience and affective commitment in determining brand loyalty. Journal of Brand Management, 18(8), 570–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Imrie, B. C. (2005). Beyond disconfirmation: The role of generosity and surprise. International Marketing Review, 22(3), 369–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ind, N. (1997). The Corporate Brand. Oxford: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Jones, J. L., & Shandiz, M. (2015). Service Quality Expectations: Exploring the Importance of SERVQUAL Dimensions from Different Nonprofit Constituent Groups. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 27(1), 48–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kassim, N. M., & Bojei, J. (2002). Service quality: Gaps in the telemarketing industry. Journal of Business Research, 55(11), 845–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Keh, H. T., & Pang, J. (2010). Customer reactions to service separation. Journal of Marketing, 74(2), 55–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kenny, D., & Albright, L. (1987). Accuracy in Interpersonal Perception: A Social Relations Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 102(3), 390–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Khan, Z., Ferguson, D., & Pérez, A. (2015). Customer responses to CSR in the Pakistani banking industry. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 33(4), 471–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kim, G. S., Lee, G. Y., & Park, K. (2010). A cross-national investigation on how ethical consumers build loyalty toward fair trade brands. Journal of Business Ethics, 96(4), 589–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kim, J., Morris, J. D., & Swait, J. (2008). Antecedents of true brand loyalty. Journal of Advertising, 37(2), 99–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kumar, S. R., & Advani, J. Y. (2005). Factors affecting brand loyalty: A study in an emerging market on fast moving consumer goods. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 4(2), 251–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lacey, R. E., & Kennett-Hensel, P. A. (2010). Longitudinal effects of corporate social responsibility on customer relationships. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(4), 581–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lam, S. Y., Shankar, V., Erramilli, M. K., & Murthy, B. (2004). Customer value, satisfaction, loyalty, and switching costs: an illustration from a business-to-business service context. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(3), 293–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lassar, W., Mittal, B., & Sharma, A. (1995). Measuring customer-based brand equity. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 12(4), 11–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lee, S., Comer, L. B., Dubinsky, A. J., & Schafer, K. (2011). The role of emotion in the relationship between customers and automobile salespeople. Journal of Managerial Issues, 23(2), 206–226.Google Scholar
  113. Lee, J., Graefe, A. R., & Burns, R. C. (2004). Service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intention among forest visitors. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 17(1), 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lee, S. Y., Petrick, J. F., & Crompton, J. (2007). The roles of quality and intermediary constructs in determining festival attendees’ behavioral intention. Journal of Travel Research, 45(4), 402–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Li, Q., & Zheng, Q. (2013). Chinese customers’ loyalty to international consulting firms. The Service Industries Journal, 33(15–16), 1495–1513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lichtenstein, D. R., Drumwright, M. E., & Braig, B. M. (2004). The effect of corporate social responsibility on customer donations to corporate-supported nonprofits. Journal of Marketing, 68(4), 16–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Lin, S. P., Chan, Y. H., & Tsai, M. C. (2009). A transformation function corresponding to IPA and gap analysis. Total Quality Management, 20(8), 829–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lin, C. P., Chen, S. C., Chiu, C. K., & Lee, W. Y. (2011). Understanding purchase intention during product-harm crises: Moderating effects of perceived corporate ability and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 102(3), 455–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lindfelt, L. L., & Törnroos, J. Å. (2006). Ethics and value creation in business research: comparing two approaches. European Journal of Marketing, 40(3/4), 328–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Liu, B. S. C., Furrer, O., & Sudharshan, D. (2001). The relationships between culture and behavioral intentions toward services. Journal of Service Research, 4(2), 118–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Liu, R. R., & McClure, P. (2001). Recognizing cross-cultural differences in consumer complaint behavior and intentions: an empirical examination. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(1), 54–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Luchs, M. G., Naylor, R. W., Irwin, J. R., & Raghunathan, R. (2010). The sustainability liability: Potential negative effects of ethicality on product preference. Journal of Marketing, 74(5), 18–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Luo, X., & Bhattacharya, C. B. (2006). Corporate social responsibility, customer satisfaction, and market value. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Machleit, K. A., & Eroglu, S. A. (2000). Describing and measuring emotional response to shopping experience. Journal of Business Research, 49(2), 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O. C. (2001). Corporate citizenship as a marketing instrument - Concepts, evidence and research directions. European Journal of Marketing, 35(3/4), 457–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Maignan, I., Ferrell, O. C., & Hult, G. T. M. (1999). Corporate citizenship: cultural antecedents and business benefits. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(4), 455–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Malhotra, M. K., & Sharma, S. (2008). Measurement Equivalence Using Generalizability Theory: An Examination of Manufacturing Flexibility Dimensions. Decision Science, 39(4), 643–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mandhachitara, R., & Poolthong, Y. (2011). A model of customer loyalty and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Services Marketing, 25(2), 122–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Marinkovic, V., & Obradovic, V. (2015). Customers’ emotional reactions in the banking industry. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 33(3), 243–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Mattila, A. S. (1999). The role of culture in the service evaluation process. Journal of Service Research, 1(3), 250–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Maxfield, S. (2008). Reconciling corporate citizenship and competitive strategy: Insights from economic theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(2), 367–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. McBane, D. A. (1995). Empathy and the Salesperson: A Multidimensional Perspective. Psychology and Marketing, 12(4), 349–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. McConnell, J. D. (1968). Repeat-purchase estimation and the linear learning model. Journal of Marketing Research, 5(3), 204–306.Google Scholar
  135. McDonald, M. H. B., de Chernatony, L., & Harris, F. (2001). Corporate marketing and service brands. Moving beyond the fast-moving consumer goods model. European Journal of Marketing, 35(3/4), 335–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Mende, M., & Bolton, R. N. (2011). Why attachment security matters how customers’ attachment styles influence their relationships with service firms and service employees. Journal of Service Research, 14(3), 285–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Menon, K., & Dubé, L. (2000). Ensuring greater satisfaction by engineering salesperson response to customer emotions. Journal of Retailing, 76(3), 285–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Morgan, N. A., Kaleka, A., & Gooner, R. A. (2007). Focal supplier opportunism in supermarket retailer category management. Journal of Operations Management, 25(2), 512–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Morsing, M. (2006). Corporate moral branding: Limits to aligning employees. Corporate Communications, 11(2), 97–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Morsing, M., & Kristensen, J. (2001). The question of coherence in corporate branding over time and across stakeholders. Journal of Communication Management, 6(1), 24–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Oliver, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the customer. New York: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  144. Orwig, R., Pearson, J., & Cochran, D. (1997). An empirical investigation into the validity of SERVQUAL in the public sector. Public Administration Quarterly, 21(1), 54–68.Google Scholar
  145. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. The Journal of Marketing, 49(Fall), 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL: a multiple item scale for measuring customer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12–40.Google Scholar
  147. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1994). Alternative scales for measuring service quality: a comparative assessment based on psychometric and diagnostic criteria. Journal of Retailing, 70(3), 201–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Parker, S. K., & Axtell, C. M. (2001). Seeing another viewpoint: Antecedents and outcomes of employee perspective taking. Academy of Management Journal, 44(6), 1085–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Pérez, A., & Rodríguez del Bosque, I. (2015). Corporate social responsibility and customer loyalty: exploring the role of identification, satisfaction and type of company. Journal of Services Marketing, 29(1), 15–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Peterson, D. K. (2004). The relationship between perceptions of corporate citizenship and organizational commitment. Business and Society, 43(3), 296–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Pilling, B. K., & Eroglu, S. (1994). An empirical examination of the impact of salesperson empathy and professionalism and merchandise salability on retail buyers’ evaluations. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 14(1), 45–58.Google Scholar
  152. Poolthong, Y., & Mandhachitara, R. (2009). Customer expectations of CSR, perceived service quality and brand effect in Thai retail banking. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 27(6), 408–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Puccinelli, N. M., Andrzejewski, S. A., Markos, E., Noga, T., & Motyka, S. (2013). The value of knowing what customers really want: The impact of salesperson ability to read non-verbal cues of affect on service quality. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(3–4), 356–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Pugh, S. D. (2001). Service with a smile: Emotional contagion in the service encounter. Academy of Management Journal, 44(5), 1018–1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rackham, N., & DeVincentis, J. (1998). Rethinking the sales force: Refining selling to create and capture customer value. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  156. Rafiq, M., Fulford, H., & Lu, X. (2013). Building customer loyalty in online retailing: The role of relationship quality. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(3–4), 494–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Ranganathan, S. K., Madupu, V., Sen, S., & Brooks, J. R. (2013). Affective and cognitive antecedents of customer loyalty towards e-mail service providers. Journal of Services Marketing, 27(3), 195–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Reeves, C. A., & Bednar, D. A. (1994). Defining quality: alternatives and implications. Academy of Management Review, 19(3), 419–445.Google Scholar
  159. Reichheld, F., & Sasser, E. (1990). Zero Defections: Quality Comes to Service. Harvard Business Review, 68(5), 105–111.Google Scholar
  160. Rentz, J. O. (1987). Generalizability theory: A comprehensive method for assessing and improving the dependability of marketing measures. Journal of Marketing Research, 24(1), 19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Reynolds, K. E., & Beatty, S. E. (1999). Customer benefits and company consequences of customer-salesperson relationships in retailing. Journal of Retailing, 75(1), 11–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Rindell, A., Svensson, G., Mysen, T., Billström, A., & Wilén, K. (2011). Towards a conceptual foundation of ‘Conscientious Corporate Brands’. Journal of Brand Management, 18(9), 709–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Roper, S., & Davies, G. (2007). The corporate brand: Dealing with multiple stakeholders. Journal of Marketing Management, 23(1–2), 75–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Ross, J. K., Patterson, L. T., & Stutts, M. A. (1992). Consumer perceptions of organizations that use cause-related marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 20(1), 93–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Roy, S. K. (2013). Consequences of customer advocacy. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 21(3), 260–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Rozin, P., & Royzman, E. B. (2001). Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5(4), 296–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Rust, R. T., & Oliver, R. L. (1994). Service Quality: Insights and Managerial Implications from the Frontier. In R. T. Rust & R. L. Oliver (Eds.), Service Quality: New Directions in Theory and Practice (pp. 1–19). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  168. Schmalz, S., & Orth, U. R. (2012). Brand attachment and consumer emotional response to unethical firm behavior. Psychology and Marketing, 29(11), 869–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Schultz, M., Antorini, Y. M., & Csaba, F. F. (2005). Corporate Branding: Purpose/People/Process. Denmark: Copenhagen Business School Press.Google Scholar
  170. Selnes, F. (1993). An examination of the effect of product performance on brand reputation, satisfaction and loyalty. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 2(4), 45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sen, S., & Bhattacharya, C. B. (2001). Does doing good always lead to doing better? Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility. Journal of Marketing Research, 38(2), 225–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Shaw, D., & Shiu, E. (2002). The role of ethical obligation and self-identity in ethical consumer choice. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26(2), 109–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Shea, L. J. (2010). Using consumer perceived ethicality as a guideline for corporate social responsibility strategy: A commentary essay. Journal of Business Research, 63(3), 263–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Sierra, V., Iglesias, O., Markovic, S., & Singh, J. J. (2015). Does ethical image build equity in corporate services brands? The influence of customer perceived ethicality on affect, perceived quality, and equity. Journal of Business Ethics. doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2855-2 Google Scholar
  175. Silverman, G. (1997). How to harness the awesome power of word of mouth. Direct Marketing, 60(7), 32–37.Google Scholar
  176. Singh, J. J., Iglesias, O., & Batista-Foguet, J. M. (2012). Does having an ethical brand matter? The influence of consumer perceived ethicality on trust, affect and loyalty. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(4), 541–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Spreng, R. A., MacKenzie, S. B., & Olshavsky, R. W. (1996). A reexamination of the determinants of consumer satisfaction. The Journal of Marketing, 60(July), 15–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Srinivasan, S. S., Anderson, R., & Ponnavolu, K. (2002). Customer loyalty in e-commerce: an exploration of its antecedents and consequences. Journal of Retailing, 78(1), 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Steenkamp, J. E. M., & Baumgartner, H. (1998). Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 25(1), 78–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Steiger, J. H. (1980). Tests for comparing elements of a correlation matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 87(2), 245–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Stock, R. M., & Hoyer, W. D. (2005). An attitude-behavior model of salespeople’s customer orientation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(4), 536–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Story, J., & Hess, J. (2010). Ethical brand management: customer relationships and ethical duties. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 19(4), 240–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Sureschchandar, G. S., Rajendran, C., & Anantharaman, R. N. (2002). The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction—a factor specific approach. The Journal of Services Marketing, 16(4), 363–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Sureschchandar, G. S., Rajendran, C., & Kamalanabhan, T. J. (2001). Customer perceptions of service quality—a critique. Total Quality Management, 12(1), 111–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Swaen, V., & Chumpitaz, C. R. (2008). L’impact de la responsabilité sociétale de l’entreprise sur la confiance des consommateurs. Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 23(4), 7–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Sweeney, J. C., Soutar, G. N., & Mazzarol, T. (2008). Factors influencing word of mouth effectiveness: receiver perspectives. European Journal of Marketing, 42(3/4), 344–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Tax, S. S., Brown, S. W., & Chandrashekaran, M. (1998). Customer evaluations of service complaint experiences: implications for relationship marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 62(April), 60–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Turker, D. (2009). How corporate social responsibility influences organizational commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(2), 189–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Valenzuela, L. M., Mulki, J. P., & Jaramillo, J. F. (2010). Impact of customer orientation, inducements and ethics on loyalty to the firm: Customers’ perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 93(2), 277–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Vallaster, C., & von Wallpach, S. (2013). An online discursive inquiry into the social dynamics of multi-stakeholder brand meaning co-creation. Journal of Business Research, 66(9), 1505–1515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Valor, C. (2005). Corporate social responsibility and corporate citizenship: Towards corporate accountability. Business and Society Review, 110(2), 191–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Venetis, K. A., & Ghauri, P. N. (2004). Service quality and customer retention: building long-term relationships. European Journal of Marketing, 38(11/12), 1577–1598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Verbeke, W. (1997). Individual differences in emotional contagion of salespersons: its effect on performance and burnout. Psychology and Marketing, 14(6), 617–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Von Bergen, C. W., & Shealy, R. E. (1982). How’s Your Empathy? Training and Development Journal, 36(11), 22–28.Google Scholar
  195. Walsh, G., & Beatty, S. E. (2007). Customer-based corporate reputation of a service firm: scale development and validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35(1), 127–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Webster, F. E., & Keller, K. L. (2004). A roadmap for branding in industrial markets. Journal of Brand Management, 11(5), 388–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Westbrook, R. A. (1981). Sources of consumer satisfaction with retail outlets. Journal of Retailing, 57(3), 68–85.Google Scholar
  198. Westbrook, R. A. (1987). Product/consumption-based affective responses and postpurchase processes. Journal of Marketing Research, 24(August), 258–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Wieseke, J., Geigenmüller, A., & Kraus, F. (2012). On the role of empathy in customer-employee interactions. Journal of Service Research, 15(3), 316–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Xie, Y., Batra, R., & Peng, S. (2015). An Extended Model of Preference Formation Between Global and Local Brands: The Roles of Identity Expressiveness, Trust and Affect. Journal of International Marketing, 23(1), 50–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Yang, Y. C. (2012). High-involvement human resource practices, affective commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Service Industries Journal, 32(8), 1209–1227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Yeh, Y. H., & Choi, S. M. (2011). MINI-lovers, maxi-mouths: An investigation of antecedents to eWOM intention among brand community members. Journal of Marketing Communications, 17(3), 145–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Yieh, K., Chiao, Y. C., & Chiu, Y. K. (2007). Understanding the antecedents to customer loyalty by applying structural equation modeling. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 18(3), 267–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The behavioral consequences of service quality. The Journal of Marketing, 60(April), 31–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). Problems and strategies in services marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 49(2), 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Markovic
    • 1
  • Oriol Iglesias
    • 1
  • Jatinder Jit Singh
    • 2
  • Vicenta Sierra
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of MarketingESADE - Universitat Ramon LlullSant Cugat del Vallès (Barcelona)Spain
  2. 2.Department of Marketing, Operations and SupplyEADA Business SchoolBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Operations, Innovation and Data SciencesESADE - Universitat Ramon LlullSant Cugat del Vallès (Barcelona)Spain

Personalised recommendations