Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 137, Issue 2, pp 231–267 | Cite as

Literature Review of Shared Value: A Theoretical Concept or a Management Buzzword?

  • Krzysztof Dembek
  • Prakash Singh
  • Vikram Bhakoo


Porter and Kramer (Harv Bus Rev 84(12):78–92, 2006; Harv Bus Rev 89(1/2), 62–77, 2011) introduced ‘shared value’ as a ‘new conception of capitalism,’ claiming it is a powerful driver of economic growth and reconciliation between business and society. The idea has generated strong interest in business and academia; however, its theoretical precepts have not been rigorously assessed. In this paper, we provide a systematic and thorough analysis of shared value, focusing on its ontological and epistemological properties. Our review highlights that ‘shared value’ has spread into the language of multiple disciplines, but that its current conceptualization is vague, and it presents important discrepancies in the way it is defined and operationalized, such that it is more of a buzzword than a substantive concept. It also overlaps with many other (related) concepts and lacks empirical grounding. We offer recommendations for defining and measuring the concept, take a step toward disentangling it from related concepts, and identify relevant theories and research methods that would facilitate extending the knowledge frontier on shared value.


Bottom of the pyramid Business and society Epistemology Literature review Ontology Shared value Theoretical concept 



Bottom of the pyramid


Complex adaptive system


Corporate social responsibility


Creating shared value


National Australia Bank


Shared value creation


Total responsibility management


  1. Aakhus, M., & Bzdak, M. (2012). Revisiting the role of “Shared Value” in the business–society relationship. Business and Professional Ethics Journal, 31(2), 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, S., & Simnett, R. (2011). Integrated reporting: An opportunity for Australia’s not-for-profit sector. Australian Accounting Review, 58(3), 292–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Álvarez, M., Moreno, A., & Mataix, C. (2013). The analytic hierarchy process to support decision-making processes in infrastructure projects with social impact. Total Quality Management, 24(5), 596–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anastasiadis, S. (2014). Toward a view of citizenship and lobbying: Corporate engagement in the political process. Business and Society, 53(2), 260–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arjaliès, D. L., Goubet, C., & Ponssard, J.-P. (2011). Approches stratégiques des émissions CO2. Revue Française de Gestion, 215, 123–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Athanasopoulou, A., & Selsky, J. W. (2012). The social context of corporate social responsibility: Enriching research with multiple perspectives and multiple levels. Business and Society, 1–43. doi: 10.1177/0007650312449260.
  7. Bagley, C. E. (2010). What’s law got to do with it?: Integrating law and strategy. American Business Law Journal, 47(4), 587–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baraka, D. (2010). Corporations and the third sector: Responsible marriages at last? Journal of Global Responsibility, 1(1), 34–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bertini, M., & Gourville, J. T. (2012). Pricing to create shared value. Harvard Business Review, 90(6), 96–104.Google Scholar
  10. Blumer, H. (1954). What is wrong with social theory? American Sociological Review, 19(1), 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bosch-Badia, M. T., Joan Montllor-Serrats, J., & Tarrazon, M. A. (2013). Corporate social responsibility from Friedman to Porter and Kramer. Theoretical Economics Letters, 3, 11–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bose, A., Ramji, A., Singh, J., & Dholakia, D. (2012). A case study for sustainable development action using financial gradients. Energy Policy, 47(1), 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bowman, C., & Ambrosini, V. (2000). Value creation versus value capture: Towards a coherent definition of value in strategy. British Journal of Management, 11, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brandenburger, A. M., & Stuart, H. W., Jr. (1996). Value-based business strategy. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 5(1), 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, D., & Knudsen, J. S. (2012). No shortcuts: Achieving shared value means changing your business culture. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.2179926.
  16. Caligiuri, P., Mencin, A., & Jiang, K. (2013). Win–win–win: The influence of company-sponsored volunteerism programs on employees, NGOs, and business units. Personnel Psychology, 64(4), 825–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cao, L., & Pederzoli, D. (2013). International retailers’ strategic responses to institutional environment of emerging market retailers’ strategic responses: Multiple case studies in China. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 41(4), 289–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carter, S. M., & Greer, C. R. (2013). Strategic leadership: Values, styles, and organizational performance. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 20(4), 375–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Casadesus-Masanell, R., & Ricart, J. E. (2010). From strategy to business models and onto tactics. Long Range Planning, 43(1/2), 195–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Casadesus-Masanell, R., & Ricart, J. E. (2011). How to design a winning business model. Harvard Business Review, 89(1/2), 100–107.Google Scholar
  21. Chatterjee, B. (2012). Business and communities—redefining boundaries. NHRD Network Journal, 5(1), 55–60.Google Scholar
  22. Comini, G., Barki, E., & Trindade de Aguiar, L. (2012). A three-pronged approach to social business: A Brazilian multi-case analysis. Revista de Administracao (Sao Paulo), 43(3), 385–397.Google Scholar
  23. Condosta, L. (2011). The strategic relevance of corporate community investments. Corporate Governance, 11(4), 446–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Condosta, L. (2012). How banks are supporting local economies facing the current financial crisis: An Italian perspective. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 30(6), 485–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Constanza, R., Fisher, B., Ali, S., Beer, C., Bond, L., Boumans, R., et al. (2007). Quality of life: An approach integrating opportunities, human needs, and subjective well-being. Ecological Economics, 61, 267–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crane, A., Matten, D., Palazzo, G., & Spence, L. J. (2013). Contesting the value of the shared value concept. California Management Review, 56(2), 130–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crane, A., Palazzo, G., Spence, L. J., & Matten, D. (2014). Contesting the value of “Creating Shared Value”. California Management Review, 56(2), 130–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Danko, D., Goldberg, J. S., Goldberg, S. R., & Grant, R. (2008). Corporate social responsibility: The United Stated vs. Europe. The Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance, 19(6), 41–47.Google Scholar
  29. Darigan, K. H., & Post, J. E. (2009). Corporate citizenship in China: CSR challenges in the ‘Harmonious Society’. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 35(Autumn), 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Denning, S. (2011). Why “shared value” can’t fix capitalism. Forbes.Google Scholar
  31. Doyal, L., & Gough, I. (1991). A theory of human need. Houndmills: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Driver, M. (2012). An interview with Michael Porter: Social entrepreneurship and the transformation of capitalism. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 11(3), 421–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dubois, C. L., & Dubois, D. A. (2012). Expanding the vision of industrial-organizational psychology contributions to environmental sustainability. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5(4), 480–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Duran-Encalada, J., & Paucar-Caceres, A. (2012). A system dynamics sustainable business model for Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex): Case based on the Global Reporting Initiative. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 63, 1065–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dyda, D. J. (2008). Jobs change lives: Social capital and shared value exchange. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 29(3), 147–156.Google Scholar
  36. Economist, T. (2011). Oh, Mr Porter; Schumpeter. The Economist [US].Google Scholar
  37. Epstein-Reeves, J. (2012). What is “Creating Shared Value”? THe CSR Blog. Forbes.Google Scholar
  38. Esposito, M., Kapoor, A., & Goyal, S. (2012). Enabling healthcare services for the rural and semi-urban segments in India: When shared value meets the bottom of the pyramid. Corporate Governance, 12(4), 514–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Etzkowitz, H., & Zhou, C. (2012). Developing venture capital system beyond economic capital concept. Journal of Knowledge-based Innovation in China, 4(3), 189–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fayet, L., & Vermeulen, W. J. V. (2014). Supporting smallholders to access sustainable supply chains: Lessons from the Indian cotton supply chain. Sustainable Development, 22(5), 289–310.Google Scholar
  41. Fearne, A., Garcia Martinez, M., & Dent, B. (2012). Dimensions of sustainable value chains: Implications for value chain analysis. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 17(6), 575–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fleming, P., Roberts, J., & Garsten, C. (2013). In search of corporate social responsibility: Introduction to special issue. Organization, 20(3), 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Florin, J., & Schmidt, E. (2011). Creating shared value in the hybrid venture arena: A business model innovation perspective. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 2(2), 165–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Follman, J. (2012). BoP at ten: Evolution and a new lens. South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, 1(2), 293–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Friedman, M. (2007). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gillespie, S., Haddad, L., Mannar, V., Menon, P., Nisbett, N., & The Maternal and Child Nutrition Study Group (2013). The politics of reducing malnutrition: Building commitment and accelerating progress. Lancet, 382, 552–569.Google Scholar
  47. Goertz, G., & Mohoney, J. (2012). Concepts and measurement: Ontology and epistemology. Social Science Information, 51(2), 205–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gotoh, R., & Yoshihara, N. (2003). A class of fair distribution rules a` la Rawls and Sen. Economic Theory, 22, 63–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Guba, E. B. (1990). The paradigm dialogue. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  50. Hamann, R. (2012). The business of development: Revisiting strategies for a sustainable future. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 54(2), 18–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hancock, C., Kingo, L., & Raynaud, O. (2011). The private sector, international development and NCDs. Globalization and Health, 7(23), 1–11.Google Scholar
  52. Hanssen, G. K. (2012). A longitudinal case study of an emerging software ecosystem: Implications for practice and theory. The Journal of Systems and Software, 85(7), 1455–1466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Harrison, J. S., & Coombs, J. E. (2012). The moderating effects from corporate governance characteristics on the relationship between available slack and community-based firm performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(4), 409–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hartmann, L., Werhane, P., & Lane Clark, K. (2011). Development, poverty and business ethics. Universia Business Review, 30(Segundo Trimestre), 96–108.Google Scholar
  55. Heilbroner, R. L. (1988). Behind the veil of economics: Essays in the wordly philosophy. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  56. Hiller, J. S. (2013). The benefit corporation and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 118(2), 287–301.Google Scholar
  57. Jackson, K. (2012). Cura personalis and business education for sustainability. Business and Professional Ethics Journal, 31(2), 265–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Juscius, V., & Jonikas, D. (2013). Integration of CSR into value creation chain: Conceptual framework. Engineering Economics, 24(1), 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kapoor, A., & Goyal, S. (2013). Inclusive healthcare at base of the pyramid (BoP) in India. International Journal of Trade and Global Markets, 6(1), 22–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Karnani, A. (2007). The mirage of marketing to the Bottom of the Pyramid: How the private sector can help alleviate poverty. California Management Review, 49(4), 90–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kendrick, A., Fullerton, J. A., & Kim, Y. J. (2013). Social responsibility in advertising: A marketing communications student perspective. Journal of Marketing Education, 35(2), 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kiran, R., & Sharma, A. (2011). Corporate social responsibility: A corporate strategy for new business opportunities. Journal of International Business Ethics, 4(1), 10–17.Google Scholar
  63. Kivleniece, I., & Quelin, B. V. (2012). Creating and capturing value in public-private ties: A private actor’s perspective. Academy of Management Review, 37(2), 272–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kolodinsky, R. W., & Bierly, P. E. (2013). Understanding the elements and outcomes of executive wisdom: A strategic approach. Journal of Management and Organisation, 19(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Korhonen, H. (2013). Organizational needs: A co-creation and human systems perspective. Journal of Business Market Management, 6(4), 214–227.Google Scholar
  66. Kruschwitz, N. (2013). Creating shared value at Nestle. MIT Sloan Management Review, 55, 1–3.Google Scholar
  67. Laasonen, S., Fougère, M., & Kourula, A. (2012). Dominant articulations in academic business and society discourse on NGO–business relations: A critical assessment. Journal of Business Ethics, 109(4), 521–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lassch, O., & Yang, J. (2011). Rebuilding Dynamics between Corporate Social Responsibility and International Development on the Search for Shared Value. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 15(2), 231–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lauesen, L. M. (2013). CSR in the aftermath of the financial crisis. Social Responsibility Journal, 9(4), 641–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Leandro, L., & Neffa, E. (2012). Is the integration of Shared Value Creation (SVC) with strategy management of productive organizations an innovative approach to environmental challenges faced by companies today? International Journal of Business Management & Economic Research, 3(2), 484–489.Google Scholar
  71. Leavy, B. (2012). Getting back to what matters – creating long-term economic and social value. Strategy and Leadership, 40(4), 12–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lee, S. M., Olson, D. L., & Trimi, S. (2012). Co-innovation: Convergenomics, collaboration, and co-creation for organizational values. Management Decision, 50(5), 817–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. London, T., & Hart, S. L. (2011). Next generation business strategies for the base of the pyramid: New approaches for building mutual value. Upper Saddle River: FT Press.Google Scholar
  74. Mabaya, E., Tihanyi, K. Z., Nwogac, M., & Cacho, J. (2013). Next steps: The evolution of CSR at Novus International, Inc. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 16(3), 153–166.Google Scholar
  75. MacGregor, S. P., & Fontrodona, J. (2011). Strategic CSR for SMEs: Paradox or possibility? Universia Business Review, 30, 80–95.Google Scholar
  76. Mahindra, A. G. (2012). Business and society in the twenty-first century—beyond CSR. NHRD Network Journal, 5(1), 36–40.Google Scholar
  77. Maltz, E., & Schein, S. (2012). Cultivating shared value initiatives: A three Cs approach. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 47(Autumn), 55–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Maltz, E., Thompson, F., & Jones Ringold, D. (2011). Assessing and maximizing corporate social initiatives: A strategic view of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Public Affairs, 11(4), 344–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Max-Neef, M. (1992). Development and human needs. In P. Ekins & M. Max-Neef (Eds.), Real life economics: Understanding wealth creation (pp. 97–213). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  80. McGahan, A. M. (2012). Challenges of the informal economy for the field of management. Academy of Management Perspectives, 26(3), 12–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McMahon, T. F. (1986). Models of the relationship of the firm to society. Journal of Business Ethics, 5(3), 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Michelini, L., & Fiorentino, D. (2012). New business models for creating shared value. Social Responsibility Journal, 8(4), 561–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Millon, D. (2011). Two models of corporate social responsibility. Wake Forest Law Review, 46, 523–540.Google Scholar
  84. Modie-Moroka, T. (2009). Does level of social capital predict perceived health in a community?— A Study of adult residents of low-income areas of Francistown, Botswana. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 27(4), 462–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mohammed, M. (2013). Corporate accountability in the context of sustainability: A conceptual framework. EuroMed Journal of Business, 8(3), 243–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Moon, H.-C., Pare, J., Yim, S. H., & Park, N. (2011). An extension of Porter and Kramer’s creating shared value (CSV): Reorienting strategies and seeking international cooperation. Journal of International and Area Studies, 18(2), 49–64.Google Scholar
  87. Mukherjee, A., & Nath, P. (2003). A model of trust in online relationship banking. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 21(1), 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. NAB. (2014). Spotlight: Creating shared value. National Australia Bank.Google Scholar
  89. Nestle. (2014). Nestle in society: Creating shared value and meeting our commitments 2013. Vevey: Nestle.Google Scholar
  90. Nussbaum, M. C. (2004). Beyond the social contract: Capabilities and global justice. Oxford Development Studies, 32(1), 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nussbaum, M. C., & Glover, J. (1995). Women, culture, and development: A study of human capabilities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Oswald, A. J. (1997). Happiness and economic performance. The Economic Journal, 107, 1815–1831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Owen, D. (2012). The conundrum: How scientific innovation, increased efficiency, and good intentions can make our energy and climate problems worse. Brunswick: Scribe Publications.Google Scholar
  94. Pavlovich, K., & Corner, P. D. (2014). Conscious enterprise emergence: Shared value creation through expanded conscious awareness. Journal of Business Ethics, 121(3), 341–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pfitzer, M., Bockstette, V., & Stamp, M. (2013). Innovating for shared value. Harvard Business Review, 91, 100–107.Google Scholar
  96. Pirson, M. (2012). Social entrepreneurs as the paragons of shared value creation? A critical perspective. Social Enterprise Journal, 8(1), 31–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Polimeni, J. M., Mayumi, K., Giampietro, M., & Alcott, B. (2008). The Jevons paradox and the myth of resource efficiency improvements. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  98. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). Strategy and society: The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78–92.Google Scholar
  99. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2011). Creating shared value. Harvard Business Review, 89(1/2), 62–77.Google Scholar
  100. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2014). A response to Andrew Crane et al’.s article by Michael E. Porter and Mark R. Kramer. California Management Review, 56(2), 149–151.Google Scholar
  101. Prahalad, C. K., & Hart, S. L. (2002). Fortune at the bottom of the pyramid. Strategy and Business, 26, 1–14.Google Scholar
  102. Rogers, C. (2013). ‘Hang on a Minute, I’ve got a great idea’: From the third way to mutual advantage in the political economy of the British Labour Party. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 15, 53–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Saguy, S. I. (2011). Academia-industry innovation interaction: Paradigm shifts and avenues for the future. Procedia Food Science, 1, 1875–1882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sastry, T. (2011). Exploring the role of business in society. IIMB Management Review, 23, 246–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schmitt, J., & Renken, U. (2012). How to earn money by doing good! Shared value in the apparel industry. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 45(Spring), 79–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schumpeter, J. A. (1909). On the concept of social value. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 23(2), 213–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. See, G. K. H. (2009). Harmonious society and Chinese CSR: Is there really a link? Journal of Business Ethics, 89(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Shaw, E., & de Bruin, A. (2013). Reconsidering capitalism: The promise of social innovation and social entrepreneurship? International Small Business Journal, 31(7), 737–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Shrivastava, P., & Kennelly, J. J. (2013). Sustainability and place-based enterprise. Organization & Environment, 26(1), 83–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Simanis, E., & Hart, S. L. (2008). Base of the pyramid protocol: Toward next generation BoP strategy. NY: Ithaca.Google Scholar
  111. Simanis, E., Hart, S. L., Enk, G., Duke, D., Gordon, M., & Lippert, A. (2005). Strategic initiatives at the Base of the Pyramid: A protocol for mutual value creation. WI: Racine.Google Scholar
  112. Sojamo, S., & Larson, E. A. (2012). Investigating food and agribusiness corporations as global water security, management and governance agents: The case of Nestlé, Bunge and Cargill. Water Alternatives, 5(3), 619–635.Google Scholar
  113. Spitzeck, H., Boechat, C., & França Leao, S. (2013). Sustainability as a driver for innovation: Towards a model of corporate social entrepreneurship at Odebrecht in Brazil. Corporate Governance, 13(5), 613–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Spitzeck, H., & Chapman, S. (2012). Creating shared value as a differentiation strategy—the example of BASF in Brazil. Corporate Governance, 12(4), 499–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Steurer, R. (2006). Mapping stakeholder theory anew: From the ‘stakeholder theory of the firm’ to three perspectives on business–society relations. Business Strategy and the Environment, 15(1), 55–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Strand, R., & Freeman, E. R. (2013). Scandinavian cooperative advantage: The theory and practice of stakeholder engagement in Scandinavia. Journal of Business Ethics, 1–21. doi: 10.1007/s10551-013-1792-1.
  117. Szmigin, I., & Rutherford, R. (2013). Shared value and the impartial spectator test. Journal of Business Ethics, 114(1), 171–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Thornton, P. H., & Ocasio, W. (2008). Institutional logics. In R. Greenwood, C. Oliver, R. Suddaby, & K. Sahlin (Eds.), The Sage handbook of organizational institutionalism (pp. 99–129). London: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Timoteo Álvarez, J., Ferruz González, S. A., & Calzadilla Daguerre, J. (2012). Pricing and valuation of intangible assets. Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, 8(12), 1780–1788.Google Scholar
  120. Topal, J., & Toledano, P. (2013). Why the extractive industry should support mandatory transparency: A shared value approach. Business and Society, 118(3), 271–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Vaidyanathan, L., & Scott, M. (2012). Creating shared value in India: The future for inclusive growth. The Journal for Decision Makers, 37(2), 108–113.Google Scholar
  122. van der Lugt, L., Dooms, Ml., & Parola, F. (2013). Strategy making by hybrid organizations: The case of the port authority. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 8, 103–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Verboven, H. (2011). Communicating CSR and business identity in the chemical industry through mission slogans. Business Communication Quarterly, 74(4), 415–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Vermeulen, W. J. V. (2013). Self-governance for sustainable global supply chains: Can it deliver the impacts needed? Business Strategy and the Environment, 1–13. doi: 10.1002/bse.1804.
  125. Vitasek, K., & Manrodt, K. (2012). Vested outsourcing: A flexible framework for collaborative outsourcing. Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, 5(1), 4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Waddock, S. A., & Bodwell, C. (2004). Managing responsibility: What can be learned from the quality movement? California Management Review, 47(1), 25–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Waddock, S. A., Bodwell, C., & Graves, S. B. (2002). Responsibility: The new business imperative. Academy of Management Executive, 16(2), 132–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Waddock, S. A., Bodwell, C., & Leigh, J. (2007). Total responsibility management: The manual. Sheffield: Greenleaf.Google Scholar
  129. Wang, T., & Bansal, P. (2012). Social responsibility in new ventures: Profiting from a long-term orientation. Strategic Management Journal, 33, 1135–1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. White, S. (1996). Needs, labour, and Marx’s conception of justice. Political Studies, 44(1), 88–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wilbrun, K., & Wilbrun, R. (2013). Using global reporting initiative indicators for CSR programs. Journal of Global Responsibility, 4(1), 62–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wilson, T. A. (2012). Supporting social enterprises to support vulnerable consumers: The example of community development finance institutions and financial exclusion. Journal of Consumer Policy, 95(2), 197–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Woolley, M. (2011). Beyond control: Rethinking industry and craft dynamics. Craft Research, 2(1), 11–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Yunus, M., Moingeon, B., & Lehmann-Ortega, L. (2010). Building social business models: Lessons from the Grameen experience. Long Range Planning, 43(1–2), 308–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krzysztof Dembek
    • 1
  • Prakash Singh
    • 1
  • Vikram Bhakoo
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Business and EconomicsUniversity of MelbourneCarltonAustralia

Personalised recommendations