Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 135, Issue 1, pp 117–128 | Cite as

Predictors of Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Ethical Leadership and Workplace Jealousy



This study examined the relationships of perceived ethical leadership, workplace jealousy, and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) directed at individuals (OCBI) and organizations (OCBO). Survey responses were collected from 491 employee-coworker pairs from 33 hospitals in Taiwan. The employees provided assessments of their perceived ethical leadership and the workplace jealousy they experienced, while the coworkers provided information about the employees’ OCBI and OCBO. In the hypotheses testing, perceived ethical leadership was found to be negatively related to employees’ workplace jealousy and jealousy was negatively related to their OCBI and OCBO. Workplace jealousy partially mediated the effect of ethical leadership on OCBI and OCBO. In addition, perceived ethical leadership was found to have a moderation effect on the jealousy-OCBI/OCBO relationship. This study contributes to the literature of ethical leadership as well as to the literature of OCB by relating workplace jealousy to OCB and by making sense of the effects of ethical leadership on OCB through the mediation of jealousy and through the moderation of ethical leadership on the jealousy-OCB relationship.


Perceived ethical leadership Workplace jealousy Organizational citizenship behavior Hospital personnel 


  1. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Walumbwa, F. O., Juthans, F., & May, D. R. (2004). Unlocking the mask: A look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 801–823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker, W. E., & Bulkley, N. (2014). Paying it forward versus rewarding reputation: Mechanisms of generalized reciprocity. Organizational Science, doi: 10.1287/orsc.2014.0920.
  5. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research, conceptual strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bedeian, A. G. (1995). Workplace envy. Organizational Dynamics, 23, 49–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analyses. In K. J. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  8. Bolino, M. C. (1999). Citizenship and impression management: good soldiers or good actors? Academy of Management Review, 24, 82–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, D. J., Ferris, L. D., Heller, D., & Keeping, L. M. (2007). The antecedents and consequences of upward and downward social comparisons at work. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 102, 59–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, M. E., & Treviño, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 595–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97, 117–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buunk, B. P., Collins, R. L., Taylor, S. E., & VanYoeren, N. W. (1990). The affective consequences of social comparison: either direction has its ups and downs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1238–1249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carmeli, A., & Josman, Z. E. (2006). The relationship among emotional intelligence, task performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Human Performance, 19, 403–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chughtai, A., Byrne, M., & Flood, B. (2014). Linking ethical leadership to employee well-being: The role of trust in supervisor. Journal of Business Ethics, doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2126-7.
  15. Cohen-Charash, Y., & Mueller, J. S. (2007). Does perceived unfairness exacerbate or mitigate interpersonal counterproductive work behaviors related to envy? Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 666–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Collins, R. L. (1996). For better or worse: The impact of upward social comparison on self-evaluations. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 51–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Connelly, S., Helton-Fauth, W., & Mumford, M. D. (2004). A managerial in-basket study of the impact of trait emotions on ethical choice. Journal of Business Ethics, 51, 245–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dalal, R. S. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1241–1255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Demirtas, O., & Akdogan, A. A. (2014). The effect of ethical leadership behavior on ethical climate, turnover intention, and affective commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2196-6.
  20. Frijda, N. H., Kuipers, P., & ter Schure, E. (1989). Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotion action readiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 212–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frisch, C., & Huppenbauer, M. (2014). New insights into ethical leadership: A qualitative investigation of the experiences of executive ethical leader. Journal of Business Ethics, 123, 23–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gaur, M. (2013). Understanding workplace relationships—With special reference to supervisor-subordinatorship—An important dimension having impact on the success, growth and performance of the employees and organization. International Journal of Research and Development, 2, 7–12.Google Scholar
  23. George, J. M., & Brief, A. P. (1992). Feeling good-doing good: A conceptual analysis of the mood at work-organizational spontaneity relationship. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 310–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Haslam, N., & Bornstein, B. H. (1996). Envy and jealousy as discrete emotions: A taxometric analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 20, 255–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hui, C., Lam, S. S. K., & Law, K. K. S. (2000). Instrumental values of organizational citizenship behavior for promotion: A field quasi-experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 822–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hupka, R. B. (1984). Jealousy: Compound emotion or label for a particular situation? Motivation and Emotion, 8, 141–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Judd, C. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1981). Process analysis: Estimating mediation in treatment evaluations. Evaluation Review, 5, 602–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kacmar, K. M., Bachrach, D. G., Harris, K. J., & Zivnuska, S. (2011). Fostering good citizenship through ethical leadership: exploring the moderating role of gender and organizational politics. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 633–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kalshoven, K., & Boon, C. T. (2012). Ethical leadership, employee well-being, and helping. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 11, 60–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim, S., O’Neill, J. W., & Cho, H. M. (2010). When does an employee not help coworkers? The effect of leader-member exchange on employee envy and organizational citizenship behavior. Internal Journal of Hospitality Management, 29, 530–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lee, K., & Allen, N. J. (2002). Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: The role of affect and cognitions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Magill, G., & Prybil, L. (2004). Stewardship and integrity in health care: A role for organizational ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 50, 225–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mathes, E. W., Adams, H. E., & Davis, R. M. (1985). Jealousy: Loss of relationship reward, loss of self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and anger. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1552–1561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mayer, D. M., Kuenzi, M., Greenbaum, R., Bardes, M., & Salvador, R. B. (2009). How low does ethical leadership flow? Test of a trickle-down model. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Miner, F. C, Jr. (1990). Jealousy on the job. Personnel Journal, 69, 88–95.Google Scholar
  37. Newman, A., Kiazad, K., & Cooper, B. (2014). Examining the cognitive and affective trust-based mechanisms underlying the relationship between ethical leadership and organizational citizenship: A case of the head leading the heart? Journal of Business Ethics, 123, 113–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Solider Syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  39. Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It’s construct clean-up time. Human Performance, 10, 85–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Organ, D. W., & Paine, J. B. (1999). A new kind of performance for industrial and organizational psychology: Recent contributions to the study of organizational citizenship behavior. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 14, 337–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Parrott, W. G., & Smith, R. H. (1993). Distinguishing the experiences of envy and jealousy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 906–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26, 513–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 539–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 185–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rego, A., Ribeiro, N., & Cunha, M. P. (2010). Perceptions of organizational virtuousness and happiness as predictors of organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 93, 215–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ruiz-Palomino, P., Ruiz-Amaya, C., & Knörr, H. (2011). Employee organizational citizenship behavior: The direct and indirect impact of ethical leadership. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 28, 244–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Salovery, P., & Rodin, J. (1984). Some antecedents and consequences of social-comparison jealousy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 780–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schwab, D. P. (2005). Research methods for organizational studies (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  50. Shin, Y., Sung, S. Y., Choi, J. N., & Kim, M. S. (2014). Top management ethical leadership and firm performance: Mediating role of ethical and procedure justice climate. Journal of Business Ethics, doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2144-5.
  51. Smith, R. H., & Kim, S. H. (2007). Comprehending envy. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 46–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Somech, A., & Drach-Zahavy, A. (2004). Exploring organizational citizenship behaviour from an organizational perspective: The relationship between organizational learning and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 281–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2002). An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior: Some parallels between counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 269–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Spence, J. R., Ferris, D. L., Brown, D. J., & Heller, D. (2011). Understanding daily citizenship behaviors: A social comparison perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 547–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tai, K., Narayanan, J., & McAllister, D. J. (2012). Envy as pain: Rethinking the nature of envy and its implications for employees and organizations. Academy of Management Review, 37, 107–129.Google Scholar
  56. Treviño, L. K., Brown, M., & Hartman, L. P. (2003). A qualitative investigation of perceived executive ethical leadership: Perceptions from inside and outside the executive suite. Human Relations, 56, 5–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tsai, W. C., Chen, H. W., & Cheng, J. W. (2009). Employee positive moods as a mediator linking transformational leadership and employee work outcomes. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20, 206–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vecchio, R. P. (2000). Negative emotion in the workplace: Employee jealousy and envy. International Journal of Stress Management, 7, 161–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vidyarthi, P. R., Liden, R. C., Anand, S., Erdogan, B., & Ghosh, S. (2010). Where do I stand? Examining the effects of leader-member exchange social comparison on employee work behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 849–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17, 601–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yaffe, T., & Kark, R. (2011). Leading by example: The case of leader OCB. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 806–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management ScienceNational Chiao Tung UniversityHsinchuTaiwan

Personalised recommendations