Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 134, Issue 3, pp 429–443 | Cite as

Organizational Ethics Research: A Systematic Review of Methods and Analytical Techniques

  • Michael S. McLeod
  • G. Tyge Payne
  • Robert E. Evert


Ethics are of interest to business scholars because they influence decisions, behaviors, and outcomes. While scholars have increasingly shown interest in business ethics as a research topic, there are a mounting number of studies that examine ethical issues at the organizational level of analysis. This manuscript reports the results of a systematic review of empirical research on organizational ethics published in a broad sample of business journals over a 33-year period (1980–2012). A total of 184 articles are analyzed to reveal gaps in the literature and, subsequently, lead to suggestions for future research; this is done in an effort to stimulate and perpetuate high quality research that more broadly impacts business scholars and practitioners.


Analytics Methods Statistics Empirical Ethics Virtues Organization Firm 


  1. Aadland, E. (2010). Values in professional practice: Towards a critical reflective methodology. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(3), 461–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alas, R. (2009). The impact of work-related values on the readiness to change in Estonian organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(2), 113–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almer, E. D., Gramling, A., & Kaplan, S. E. (2008). Impact of post-restatement actions taken by a firm on non-professional investors’ credibility perceptions. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(1), 61–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amir, Y., & Sharon, I. (1990). Replication research: A ‘must’ for the scientific advancement of psychology. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5(4), 51–69.Google Scholar
  5. Antonakis, J., Bendahan, S., Jacquart, P., & Lalive, R. (2010). On making causal claims: A review and recommendations. Leadership Quarterly, 21(6), 1086–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bobek, D. D., Hageman, A. M., & Radtke, R. R. (2010). The ethical environment of tax professionals: Partner and non-partner perceptions and experiences. Journal of Business Ethics, 92(4), 637–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bright, D., Winn, B., & Kanov, J. (2014). Reconsidering virtue: Differences of perspective in virtue ethics and the positive social sciences. Journal of Business Ethics, 119(4), 445–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Calabretta, G., Durisin, B., & Ogliengo, M. (2011). Uncovering the intellectual structure of research in business ethics: A journey through the history, the classics, and the pillars of Journal of Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 104(4), 499–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calderón-Cuadrado, R., Álvarez-Arce, J. L., Rodríguez-Tejedo, I., & Salvatierra, S. (2009). “Ethics hotlines” in transnational companies: A comparative study. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(1), 199–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cameron, K. S. (2003). Organizational virtuousness and performance. In K. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline (pp. 48–65). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  11. Cameron, K. S., Bright, D., & Caza, A. (2004). Exploring the relationships between organizational virtuousness and performance. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(6), 766–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cameron, K. S., Dutton, J. E., & Quinn, R. (2003). Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Casper, W. J., Eby, L. T., Bordeaux, C., Lockwood, A., & Lambert, D. (2007). A review of research methods in IO/OB work–family research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 28–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chatov, R. (1980). What corporate ethics statements say. California Management Review, 22(4), 20–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chun, R. (2005). Ethical character and virtue of organizations: An empirical assessment and strategic implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 57(3), 269–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis for field settings. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  17. Cowton, C. J., & Thompson, P. (2000). Do codes make a difference ? The case of bank lending and the environment. Journal of Business Ethics, 24(2), 165–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crane, A. (1999). Are you ethical? Please tick yes or no: On researching ethics in business organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 20(3), 237–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dean, M. A., Shook, C. L., & Payne, G. T. (2007). The past, present, and future of entrepreneurship research: Data analytic trends and training. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(4), 601–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deniz, M. D. L. C. D., & Suarez, M. K. C. (2005). Corporate social responsibility and family business in Spain. Journal of Business Ethics, 56(1), 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Donaldson, L. (2001). The contingency theory of organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Donker, H., Poff, D., & Zahir, S. (2008). Corporate values, codes of ethics, and firm performance: A look at the Canadian context. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(3), 527–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Douglas, P. C., Davidson, R. A., & Schwartz, B. N. (2001). The effect of organizational culture and ethical orientation on accountants’ ethical judgments. Journal of Business Ethics, 34(2), 101–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Drover, W., Wood, M., & Payne, G. T. (2014). The effects of perceived control on venture capitalist investment decisions: A configurational perspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(4), 833–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Durkheim, E. (1951). Suicide: a Study in Sociology. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  26. Edwards, J. R. (2008). To prosper, organizational psychology should… overcome methodological barriers to progress. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(4), 469–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Etzioni, D. (2007). Research on organizations and the natural environment, 1992-present: A review. Journal of Management, 33(4), 637–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fagenson, E. A. (1990). At the heart of women in management research: Theoretical and methodological approaches and their biases. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(4–5), 267–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Felo, A. J. (2001). Ethics programs, board involvement, and potential conflicts of interest in corporate governance. Journal of Business Ethics, 32(3), 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fiss, P. C. (2007). A set-theoretic approach to organizational configurations. Academy of Management Review, 32, 1180–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Garcia-Castro, R., Ariño, M., & Canela, M. (2010). Does social performance really lead to financial performance? Accounting for endogeneity. Journal of Business Ethics, 92(1), 107–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gordon, R., Clegg, S., & Kornberger, M. (2009). Embedded ethics: Discourse and power in the New South Wales police service. Organization Studies, 30(1), 73–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  34. Halter, M. V., Arruda, M. C. C., & Halter, R. B. (2009). Transparency to reduce corruption? Journal of Business Ethics, 84(3), 373–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hartman, E. M. (2008). Reconciliation in business ethics: Some advice from Aristotle. Business Ethics Quarterly, 18, 253–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hillman, A. J., & Klein, G. D. (2001). Shareholder value, stakeholder management, and social issues: What’s the bottom line? Strategic Management Journal, 22(2), 125–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Holder-Webb, L., & Cohen, J. (2012). The cut and paste society: Isomorphism in codes of ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(4), 485–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Houghton, S. M., Gabel, J. T. A., & Williams, D. W. (2009). Connecting the two faces of CSR: Does employee volunteerism improve compliance? Journal of Business Ethics, 87(4), 477–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Huhtala, M., Feldt, T., Lämsä, A.-M., Mauno, S., & Kinnunen, U. (2011). Does the ethical culture of organisations promote managers’ occupational well-being? Investigating indirect links via ethical strain. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(2), 231–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hunt, S. D., Wood, V. R., & Chonko, L. B. (1989). Corporate ethical values and organizational commitment in marketing. Journal of Marketing, 53(3), 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ioannidis, J. P. (2007). Non-replication and inconsistency in the genome-wide association setting. Human Heredity, 64(4), 203–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jick, T. D. (1979). Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Triangulation in action. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24(4), 602–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jin, K. G., & Drozdenko, R. G. (2010). Relationships among perceived organizational core values, corporate social responsibility, ethics, and organizational performance outcomes: An empirical study of information technology professionals. Journal of Business Ethics, 92(3), 341–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jo, H., & Na, H. (2012). Does CSR reduce firm risk? Evidence from controversial industry sectors. Journal of Business Ethics, 110(4), 441–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnson, J. L., Martin, K. D., & Saini, A. (2011). Strategic culture and environmental dimensions as determinants of anomie in publicly-traded and privately-held firms. Business Ethics Quarterly, 21(3), 473–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jovanovic, S., & Wood, R. V. (2007). Dialectical interactions: Decoupling and integrating ethics and ethics initiatives. Business Ethics Quarterly, 17(2), 217–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Judd, C. M., & McClelland, G. H. (1989). Data analysis: A model comparison approach. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  48. Judge, T. A., Cable, D. M., Colbert, A. E., & Rynes, S. L. (2007). What causes a management article to be cited—Article, author, or journal? Academy of Management Journal, 50(3), 491–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kaptein, M. (1998). Ethics management: Auditing and developing the ethical content of organizations. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaptein, M. (2008). Developing and testing a measure for the ethical culture of organizations: The corporate ethical virtues model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(7), 923–947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kaptein, M. (2009). Ethics programs and ethical culture: A next step in unraveling their multi-faceted relationship. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(2), 261–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kaptein, M. (2010). The ethics of organizations: A longitudinal study of the U.S. working population. Journal of Business Ethics, 92(4), 601–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ki, E. J., Choi, H. L., & Lee, J. (2012). Does ethics statement of a public relations firm make a difference? Yes it does!! Journal of Business Ethics, 105(2), 267–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Klein, K. J., & Kozlowski, S. W. J. (2000). From micro to meso: Critical steps in conceptualizing and conducting multilevel research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(3), 211–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Laband, D. N. (1986). Article popularity. Economic Inquiry, 24(1), 173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Laband, D. N., & Piette, M. J. (1994). A citation analysis of the impact of blinded peer review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272(2), 147–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lin, L. (2011). Cultural and organizational antecedents of guanxi: The Chinese cases. Journal of Business Ethics, 99(3), 441–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Loughran, T., McDonald, B., & Yun, H. (2009). A wolf in sheep’s clothing: The use of ethics related terms in 10-K reports. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(1), 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2007). Emerging positive organizational behavior. Journal of Management, 33(3), 321–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. MacIntyre, A. C. (2013). After virtue. Edinburgh: A&C Black.Google Scholar
  61. Mahoney, L. S., & Thorne, L. (2005). Corporate social responsibility and long-term compensation: Evidence from Canada. Journal of Business Ethics, 57(3), 241–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Majluf, N. S., & Navarrete, C. M. (2011). A two-component compliance and ethics program model: An empirical application to Chilean corporations. Journal of Business Ethics, 100(4), 567–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mayer-Sommer, A. P., & Roshwalb, A. (1996). An examination of the relationship between ethical behavior, espoused ethical values and financial performance in the U.S. defense industry: 1988-1992. Journal of Business Ethics, 15(12), 1249–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McCabe, D. L., Treviño, L. K., & Butterfield, K. D. (1996). The influence of collegiate and corporate codes of conduct on ethics-related behavior in the workplace. Business Ethics Quarterly, 6(4), 461–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McDonald, G. M. (2000). Cross-cultural methodological issues in ethical research. Business challenging business ethics: New instruments for coping with diversity in international business. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  66. McKendall, M. A., & Wagner, J. A. (1997). Motive, opportunity, choice, and corporate illegality. Organization Science, 8(6), 624–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McKenny, A. F., Payne, G. T., Zachary, M. A., & Short, J. C. (2013). Multilevel analysis in family business studies. Sage Handbook of Family Business. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  68. McKenny, A. M., Short, J. C., & Payne, G. T. (2013b). Using computer-aided text analysis to elevate constructs: An illustration using psychological capital. Organizational Research Methods, 16(1), 152–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Miyazaki, A. D., & Taylor, K. A. (2008). Researcher interaction biases and business ethics research: Respondent reactions to researcher characteristics. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(4), 779–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Moore, G. (1999). Corporate moral agency: Review and implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 21(4), 329–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Moore, G. (2002). On the implications of the practice-institution distinction: MacIntyre and the application of modern virtue ethics to business. Business Ethics Quarterly, 12, 19–32.Google Scholar
  72. Moore, G. (2012). Virtue in business: Alliance boots and an empirical exploration of MacIntyre’s conceptual framework. Organization Studies, 33(3), 363–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Morris, M. H., Schindehutte, M., Walton, J., & Allen, J. (2002). The ethical context of entrepreneurship: Proposing and testing a developmental framework. Journal of Business Ethics, 40(4), 331–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Muller, A., & Kolk, A. (2010). Extrinsic and intrinsic drivers of corporate social performance: Evidence from foreign and domestic firms in Mexico. Journal of Management Studies, 47(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nicholson, C. Y., & DeMoss, M. (2009). Teaching ethics and social responsibility: An evaluation of undergraduate business education at the discipline level. Journal of Education for Business, 84(4), 213–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nielsen, R. P., & Massa, F. G. (2013). Reintegrating ethics and institutional theories. Journal of Business Ethics, 115(1), 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pae, J., & Choi, T. H. (2011). Corporate governance, commitment to business ethics, and firm valuation: Evidence from the Korean stock market. Journal of Business Ethics, 100(2), 323–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Payne, G. T. (2006). Examining configurations and firm performance in a suboptimal equifinality context. Organization Science, 17(6), 756–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Payne, G. T., Brigham, K. H., Broberg, J., Moss, T. W., & Short, J. C. (2011a). Organizational virtue orientation and family firms. Business Ethics Quarterly, 21(2), 257–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Payne, G. T., Moore, C. B., Bell, R. G., & Zachary, M. A. (2013). Signaling organizational virtue: An examination of virtue rhetoric, country-level corruption and performance of foreign IPOs from emerging and developed economies. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 7(3), 230–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Payne, G. T., Moore, C. B., Griffis, S., & Autry, C. (2011b). Multilevel challenges and opportunities in social capital research. Journal of Management, 37(2), 395–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Randall, D. M., & Fernandes, M. F. (1991). The social desirability response bias in ethics research. Journal of Business Ethics, 10(11), 805–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rego, A., Ribeiro, N., & Cunha, M. P. (2010). Perceptions of organizational virtuousness and happiness as predictors of organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 93, 215–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Robertson, C. J. (2008). An analysis of 10 years of business ethics research in Strategic Management Journal: 1996–2005. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(4), 745–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Robertson, C., Gilley, K. M., & Crittenden, W. F. (2008). Trade liberalization, corruption, and software piracy. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 623–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rousseau, D., Manning, J., & Denyer, D. (2008). Chapter 11: Evidence in management and organizational science: Assembling the field’s full weight of scientific knowledge through syntheses. Academy of Management Annals, 2(1), 475–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sackett, P. R., & Larson, J. R. (1990). Research strategies and tactics in industrial and organizational psychology. In M. D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, (Vol. 1, pp. 419–489). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  88. Scandura, T. A., & Williams, E. A. (2000). Research methodology in management: Current practices, trends, and implications for future research. Academy of Management Journal, 43(6), 1248–1264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schriescheim, C. A., Powers, K. J., Scandura, T. A., Gardiner, C. G., & Lankau, M. J. (1993). Improving construct measurement in management research: Comments and a quantitative approach for assessing the theoretical content adequacy of paper-and-pencil survey-type instruments. Journal of Management, 19(2), 385–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sekerka, L., Comer, D., & Godwin, L. (2014). Positive organizational ethics: Cultivating and sustaining moral performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 119(4), 435–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Shao, R., Rupp, D. E., Skarlicki, D. P., & Jones, K. S. (2013). Employee justice across cultures: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Management, 39(1), 263–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Short, J. C., Payne, G. T., & Ketchen, D. J. (2008). Research on organizational configurations: Past accomplishments and future challenges. Journal of Management, 34(6), 1053–1079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Solomon, R. C. (1992). Corporate roles, personal virtues: An Aristotelian approach to business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly, 317–339.Google Scholar
  94. Somers, M. (2001). Ethical codes of conduct and organizational context: A study of the relationship between codes of conduct, employee behavior and organizational values. Journal of Business Ethics, 30(2), 186–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Spreitzer, G. M., & Sonenshein, S. (2004). Toward the construct definition of positive deviance. American Behavioral Scientist, 47, 828–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Star, S. L., Bowker, G. C., & Neumann, L. J. (1997). Transparency at different levels of scale: convergence between information artifacts and social worlds. Urbana-Champaign, IL: Library and Information Science, University of Illinois.Google Scholar
  97. Stevens, J. M., Kevin Steensma, H., Harrison, D. A., & Cochran, P. L. (2005). Symbolic or substantive document? The influence of ethics codes on financial executives’ decisions. Strategic Management Journal, 26(2), 181–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Stevenson, L. (1990). Some methodological problems associated with researching women entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(4–5), 439–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sutcliffe, K. M., & Vogus, T. J. (2003). Organizing for resilience. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline (pp. 94–110). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  100. Tenbrunsel, A. E., & Smith-Crowe, K. (2008). Ethical decision making: Where we’ve been and where we’re going. The Academy of Management Annals, 2(1), 545–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Trevino, L. K. (1986). Ethical decision making in organizations: A person–situation interactionist model. Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 601–617.Google Scholar
  102. Trevino, L. K., Butterfield, K. D., & McCabe, D. L. (1998). The ethical context in organizations: Influences on employee attitudes and behaviors. Business Ethics Quarterly, 8(3), 447–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Trevino, L. K., den Nieuwenboer, N. A., & Kish-Gephart, J. J. (2014). (Un) Ethical behavior in organizations. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 635–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Trevino, L. K., Weaver, G. R., & Brown, M. E. (2008). It’s lovely at the top. Business Ethics Quarterly, 18(2), 233–252.Google Scholar
  105. Trevino, L., Weaver, G. R., Gibson, D. G., & Toffler, B. (1999). Managing Ethics and Legal Compliance: What works and what hurts. California Management Review, 41(2), 131–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tseng, F. C., & Fan, Y. J. (2011). Exploring the influence of organizational ethical climate on knowledge management. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(2), 325–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tyler, T., Dienhart, J., & Thomas, T. (2008). The ethical commitment to compliance: Building value-based cultures. California Management Review, 50(2), 31–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Valentine, S., & Fleischman, G. (2008). Ethics programs, perceived corporate social responsibility and job satisfaction. Journal of Business Ethics, 77(2), 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Van Maanen, J., Sorensen, J. B., & Mitchell, T. R. (2007). The interplay between theory and method. Academy of Management Review, 32(4), 1145–1154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Veiga, J. F., & Dechant, K. (1993). Fax Poll: Altruism in Corporate America. Academy of Management Executive, 7(3), 89–91.Google Scholar
  111. Victor, B., & Cullen, J. B. (1988). The organizational bases of ethical work climates. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33(1), 101–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Vitell, S. J. (2003). Consumer ethics research: Review, synthesis and suggestions for the future. Journal of Business Ethics, 43(1–2), 33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Weaver, G. R., Trevino, L., & Cochran, P. L. (1999). Corporate ethics programs as controls systems: Influences of executive commitment and environmental factors. Academy of Management Journal, 42(1), 41–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Weber, W. G., Unterrainer, C., & Schmid, B. E. (2009). The influence of organizational democracy on employees’ socio-moral climate and prosocial behavioral orientations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(8), 1127–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Whetten, D. A., Felin, T., & King, B. G. (2009). The practice of theory borrowing in organizational studies: Current issues and future directions. Journal of Management, 35(3), 537–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Williams, B. (1985). Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Wines, W., & Napier, N. (1992). Toward an understanding of cross-cultural ethics: A tentative model. Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 831–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wright, T. A., & Goodstein, J. (2007). Character is not “dead” in management research: A review of individual character and organizational-level virtue. Journal of Management, 33(6), 928–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Yauch, C. A., & Steudel, H. J. (2003). Complementary use of qualitative and quantitative cultural assessment methods. Organizational Research Methods, 6(4), 465–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yeh, Y. H., Lee, T. S., & Shu, P. G. (2008). The agency problems embedded in firm’s equity investment. Journal of Business Ethics, 79(1/2), 151–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zahra, S. A., & Wright, M. (2011). Entrepreneurship’s next act. Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(4), 67–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael S. McLeod
    • 1
  • G. Tyge Payne
    • 1
  • Robert E. Evert
    • 1
  1. 1.Rawls College of BusinessTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

Personalised recommendations