Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 121, Issue 3, pp 341–351 | Cite as

Conscious Enterprise Emergence: Shared Value Creation Through Expanded Conscious Awareness

  • Kathryn Pavlovich
  • Patricia Doyle Corner
Article

Abstract

We propose conscious awareness as a mechanism for creating “shared value”; a form of value that Porter describes as putting social and community needs before profit. We explore the mechanism empirically in an entrepreneurial context and find that spiritual practices increase conscious awareness which, in turn, shapes entrepreneurial intentions and venture characteristics focused on shared value.

Keywords

Conscious enterprise Entrepreneurship Shared value creation Spirituality Yoga 

References

  1. Ashar, H., & Lane-Maher, M. (2004). Success and spirituality in the new business paradigm. Journal of Management Inquiry, 13, 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banerjee, S. (2011). Embedding sustainability across the organization: A critical perspective. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 10(4), 719–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bauer, J., Schwab, J., & McAdams, D. (2011). Self-actualising: Where ego development finally feels good? The Humanistic Psychologist, 39, 121–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Begley, S. (2004). Scans of Monks’ brains show meditation alters structure, functioning. Wall Street Journal, 5 November 2004.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, K., & Ryan, R. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological wellbeing. Journal of Personality and Social Responsibility, 84, 822–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, K., Ryan, R., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for is salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 211–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buechner, C. (1973). Wishful thinking: A theological ABC. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  8. Bullock, A., & Trombley, S. (1999). The new Fontana dictionary of modern thought (3rd ed.). London: HarperCollins Publishers.Google Scholar
  9. Casson, M. (1982). The entrepreneur. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Chu, E. (2007). Spiritual capitalism: The achievement of flow in entrepreneurial enterprises. Journal of Human Values, 13, 61–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Collins, J. (2001). Level 5 leadership: The triumph of humility and fierce resolve. Harvard Business Review, 79(1), 67–76.Google Scholar
  12. Corner, P. D. (2009). Workplace spirituality and business ethics: Insights from an Eastern spiritual tradition. Journal of Business Ethics, 85, 377–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corner, P., & Ho, M. (2010). How opportunities develop in social entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34, 635–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Creswell, J. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Dik, B., & Duffy, R. (2009). Calling and vocation at work: Definitions and prospects for research and practice. The Counselling Psychologist, 37, 424–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Driscoll, C., & McKee, M. (2007). Restorying a culture of ethical and spiritual values: A role for leader storytelling. Journal of Business Ethics, 73, 205–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eisenhardt, K., & Graebner, M. (2007). Theory building from cases: Opportunities and challenges. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elangovan, A., Pinder, C., & McLean, M. (2010). Callings and organizational behaviour. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 428–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elliot, J. (2005). Using narrative in social research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Farb, N., Segal, Z., Mayberg, H., Bean, J., McKeon, D., Fatima, Z., et al. (2007). Attending to the present: Mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2, 313–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Farthing, G. (1992). The psychology of consciousness. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  22. Fry, L. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(6), 693–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gergen, K., & Gergen, M. (2011). Narrative tensions: Perilous and productive. Narrative Inquiry, 21(2), 374–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hall, D., & Chandler, D. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling. Journal of Organisational Behavior, 26, 155–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hart, S. (2005). Capitalism at the crossroads. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Wharton School Publishing.Google Scholar
  26. Hart, S., & Dowell, G. (2011). A natural resource-based view of the firm: Fifteen years after. Journal of Management, 37(5), 1464–1479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hölzel, B., Lazar, S., Gard, T., Schuman-Olivier, Z., Vago, D., & Ulrich, O. (2011). How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(6), 537–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living. New York: Bantam Dell (Random House, Inc.).Google Scholar
  29. Karp, T. (2006). The inner entrepreneur: A constructivist view of entrepreneurial reality construction. Journal of Change Management, 6(3), 291–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kearins, K., Collins, E., & Tregidga, H. (2010). Beyond corporate environmental management to a consideration of nature in visionary small enterprise. Business and Society, 49, 512–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kearney, R. (2002). On stories. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Kuhn, T. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions (2nd ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  33. Lama, D. (2005). The universe in a single atom. New York: Broadway Books.Google Scholar
  34. Langley, A. (1999). Strategies for theorizing from process data. Academy of Management Review, 24, 691–710.Google Scholar
  35. Lazar, S., Kerr, C., Wasserman, R., Gray, J., Greve, D., & Treadway, M. (2005). Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. NeuroReport, 16(17), 1893–1897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lipton, B. (2008). The biology of belief. Carlsbad, CA, USA: Hay House Inc.Google Scholar
  37. Liu, C., & Robertson, P. (2012). Spirituality in the workplace: Theory and measurement. Journal of Management Inquiry, 20, 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mair, J., & Marti, I. (2006). Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight. Journal of World Business, 41, 36–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Marshall, R. S. (2010). Conceptualizing the international for-profit social entrepreneur. Journal of Business Ethics, 98, 183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Martin, R. & Osberg, S. (2007). Social entrepreneurship: The case for definition, Spring. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 5(2), 28–39.Google Scholar
  41. Mirvis, P. (2008). Executive development through consciousness raising experiences. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 7, 173–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mitroff, I., & Denton, E. (1999). A spiritual audit of corporate America. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  43. Moberg, D., & Calkins, M. (2001). Reflection in business ethics: Insights from St. Ignatius’ spiritual exercises. Journal of Business Ethics, 33, 257–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Niranjanada, S. (2002). Yoga Darshan: Vision of the yoga Upanishads. Munger, India: Yoga Publications Trust.Google Scholar
  45. O’Grady, K. (2011). The role of inspiration in organizational life. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 8(3), 257–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pavlovich, K., & Corner, P. (2009). Spiritual organisations and inter-connectedness: The living nature experience. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 6(3), 209–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pavlovich, K., & Krahnke, K. (2012). Empathy, connectedness and organization. Journal of Business Ethics, 105(1), 131–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Porter, M., & Driver, M. (2012). An interview with Michael Porter: Social entrepreneurship and the transformation of capitalism. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 11(3), 421–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Porter, M. & Kramer, M. (2011). Creating shared value: How to reinvent capitalism and unleash a wave of innovation and growth. Harvard Business Review, Jan–Feb, 63–77.Google Scholar
  50. Prahalad, C. K. (2004). The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: Eradicating poverty through profits. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing.Google Scholar
  51. Pruzan, P. (2001). The question of organizational consciousness: Can organizations have values, virtues and visions? Journal of Business Ethics, 29, 271–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Raeve, L. (2005). Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 655–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rhodes, C., & Brown, A. (2005). Narratives, organisations and research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 7(3), 167–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Richards, L. (2009). Handling qualitative data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Russo, M. (2010). Companies on a mission: Entrepreneurial strategies for growing sustainably, responsibly, and profitably. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Sarasvathy, S., & Dew, N. (2005). New market creation through transformation. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 15, 533–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Satchidananda, S. (2004). The yoga sutras of Patanjali. Buckingham, VA, USA: Integral Yoga Publications.Google Scholar
  58. Satyananda, S. (1976). Four chapters on freedom: Commentary on the yoga sutras of Patanjali. Munger, India: Yoga Publications Trust.Google Scholar
  59. Schuyler, K. (2007). Being a bodhisattva at work: Perspectives on the influence of Buddhist practices in entrepreneurial organizations. Journal of Human Values, 13, 43–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Seuring, S., Sarkis, J., Müller, M., & Rao, P. (2008). Sustainability and supply chain management: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(15), 1545–1551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sfeir-Younins, A. (2002). The spiritual entrepreneur. Reflections, 2, 43–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shane, S. (2000). Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organization Science, 11, 448–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sheep, M. (2006). Nurturing the whole person: The ethics of workplace spirituality in a society of organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 66, 357–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Siegel, D. (2007). The mindful brain. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  65. Siggelkow, N. (2007). Persuasion with case studies. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1), 20–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Steingard, D. (2005). Spiritually-informed management theory: Toward profound possibilities for inquiry and transformation. Journal of Management Inquiry, 14, 227–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  68. Van Gulick, R. (2004). Consciousness. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consciousness/.
  69. Vivekananda, R. (2005). Practical yoga psychology. Bihar, India: Yoga Publications Trust.Google Scholar
  70. Vohora, A., Wright, M., & Lockett, A. (2004). Critical junctures in the development of university high-tech spinout companies. Research Policy, 33, 147–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. We’ar Yoga. n.d. Retrieved August 26, 2012, from http://wearyogaclothing.com.
  72. Weerawardena, J., & Mort, G. (2006). Investigating social entrepreneurship: A multidimensional model. Journal of World Business, 41, 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Weick, K., & Putnam, T. (2006). Organizing for mindfulness: Eastern wisdom and western knowledge. Journal of Management Inquiry, 15(3), 275–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Weick, K., & Sutcliffe, K. (2006). Mindfulness and the quality of organizational action. Organization Science, 17, 514–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Welford, R. (2006). Tackling greed and achieving sustainable development. In L. Zsolnai, K. Ims, & P. Lang (Eds.), Business within limits. Deep ecology and Buddhist economics (pp. 25–57). Bern: International Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  76. Wheatley, M. (1999). Leadership and the new science. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  77. Word, J. (2012). Engaging work as a calling: Examining the link between spirituality and job involvement. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 9(2), 147–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Inc.Google Scholar
  79. Yoga Accreditation Requirements. (2006). Yoga teacher accreditation agreement. Australasia: Satyananda Yoga Academy Ltd.Google Scholar
  80. Yunus, M. (2007). The Nobel peace prize 2006 Nobel lecture. Law and Business Review of the Americas, 13, 267–275.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Waikato Management SchoolHamiltonNew Zealand
  2. 2.Auckland University of TechnologyAuckland CentralNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations