Is it Spillover or Compensation? Effects of Community and Organizational Diversity Climates on Race Differentiated Employee Intent to Stay
- 690 Downloads
Business ethics scholars have long viewed organizational diversity climate as a reflection of organizational ethics. Previous research on organizational diversity climate, for the most part, has neglected to consider the influence of community diversity climate on employment relations. In order to address this gap in the literature, we examined the relationship between organizational and community diversity climates in impacting employees’ intent to stay with their organization. In doing so, we tested two competing hypotheses. First, we tested for the positive spillover of community diversity climate on employees’ intent to stay in their organization. Second, we tested for the compensation hypothesis, whereby community diversity climate moderated the organizational diversity climate-employee intent to stay relationship, with the above relationship being stronger for individuals hailing from communities with poor diversity climates. In addition, we also posited a three-way interaction model of community diversity climate, organizational diversity climate, and employee racial affiliations with the interaction between organizational and community diversity climates on intent to stay being stronger for the minority employees. The results of the study, which are based on a survey of 165 employees working in a Midwestern US organization, supported the compensation hypothesis with the interactive influence of organizational and community diversity climates on employee intent to stay being stronger for minorities, as opposed to White employees.
KeywordsDiversity climate Spillover Compensation Race
- Blake, R. (2006). Employee retention: what employee turnover really costs your company. Retrieved from http://www.webpronews.com/employee-retention-what-employee-turnover-really-costs-your-company-2006-07.
- Burke, R. J., & Greenglass, E. R. (1987). Work and family. In C. L. Cooper & I. T. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 273–320). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Cox, T. H. (1994). Cultural diversity in organizations: Theory, research and practice. San Francisco: Berrett Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
- Daniels, S. (2010). Retaining a workforce that wants to quit. Retrieved from http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2010/07/retaining_a_workforce_that_want.html.
- Edwards, J. R., & Rothbard, N. P. (2000). Mechanisms linking work and family: Clarifying the relationship between work and family constructs. Academy of Management Review, 25, 178–199.Google Scholar
- Feagin, J. R., & Mckinney, K. D. (2003). The many costs of racism. Lanham: Rowan & Littlefield.Google Scholar
- Federal Glass Ceiling Commission. (1995). Good for business: Making full use of the nation’s human capital. Washington: U.S. Department of Labor.Google Scholar
- Foley, S., Kidder, D. L., & Powell, G. N. (2002). The perceived glass ceiling and justice perceptions: An investigation of hispanic law associates. Journal of Management, 28, 471–496.Google Scholar
- Friedman, S. D., & Greenhaus, J. H. (2000). Work and family—allies or enemies? What happens when business professionals confront life choices. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Gusfield, J. R. (1975). The community: A critical response. New York: Harper Colophon.Google Scholar
- Hopkins, W. E., Hopkins, S. A., & Mallette, P. (2001). Diversity and managerial value commitment: A test of some proposed relationships. Journal of Managerial Issues, 13, 288–306.Google Scholar
- Ilgen, D. R., & Youtz, M. A. (1986). Factors affecting the evaluation and development of minorities in organizations. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 4, 307–337.Google Scholar
- James, L. R., James, L. A., & Ashe, D. K. (1990). The meaning of organizations: The role of cognition and values. In B. Schneider (Ed.), Organizational Climate and Culture (pp. 54–55). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
- Kant, I. (1959). Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals. (L. W. Beck, Trans.). New York: McMillan.Google Scholar
- Lee, T. W., & Mitchell, T. R. (1994). An alternative approach: the unfolding model of voluntary employee turnover. Academy of Management Review, 19, 51–89.Google Scholar
- Maertz, C. P., & Campion, M. A. (1998). 25 years of voluntary turnover research: A review and critique. In C. L. Cooper & I. T. Robinson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 49–86). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Near, J. P., Rice, R. W., & Hunt, R. G. (1980). The relationship between work and nonwork domains: A review of empirical research. Academy of Management Review, 5, 415–430.Google Scholar
- Ragins, B. R., Gonzalez, J. A., & Singh, R. (2010). Climate spillovers: The impact of community and organizational climates on work attitudes and quality of life. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Conference in Montréal, Canada.Google Scholar
- Rothbard, N. P., & Dumas, T. L. (2006). Research perspectives. In F. Jones, R. Burke, & M. Westman (Eds.), Work-life balance: A psychological perspective. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Sarason, S. B. (1974). The psychological sense of community: Prospects for a community psychology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Singh, B. & Winkel, D. (2011). Racial differences in helping behaviors: The role of respect, safety and identification. The Journal of Business Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/d8j02428p6520110/fulltext.pdf.
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
- Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
- Voydanoff, P. (2001). Conceptualizing community in the context of work and family. Community, Work & Family, 4, 133–156.Google Scholar
- Voydanoff, P. (2007). Work, family, and community: Exploring interconnections. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Zedeck, S. (1992). Introduction: Exploring the domain of work and family concerns. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), Work, families, and organizations (pp. 1–32). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar