Two Independent Value Orientations: Ideal and Counter-Ideal Leader Values and Their Impact on Followers’ Respect for and Identification with Their Leaders
- 1.5k Downloads
Traditionally, conceptualizations of human values are based on the assumption that individuals possess a single integrated value system comprising those values that people are attracted by and strive for. Recently, however, van Quaquebeke et al. (in J Bus Ethics 93:293–305, 2010) proposed that a value system might consist of two largely independent value orientations—an orientation of ideal values and an orientation of counter-ideal values (values that individuals are repelled by), and that both orientations exhibit antithetic effects on people’s responses to the social world. Following a call for further research on this distinction, we conducted two studies to assess the independent effects of ideal and counter-ideal values in leadership settings. Study 1 (N = 131) finds both value orientations to explain unique variance in followers’ vertical respect for their leaders. Study 2 (N = 136) confirms these results and additionally shows an analogous effect for followers’ identification with their leaders. Most importantly, we find that both value orientations exhibit their effects only independently when the content of the two orientations pertain to different value types in Schwartz’s (in J Soc Issues 50:19–46, 1994) circumplex model. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
KeywordsIdeal values Counter-ideal values Leadership Respect for leaders Identification with leaders
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
- Alwin, D. F. (2010). How good is survey measurement? Assessing the reliability and validity of survey measures. In P. Marsden & J. D. Wright (Eds.), Handbook of survey research (Vol. 2, pp. 405–436). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
- Bilsky, W., Janik, M., & Schwartz, S. H. (2010). The structural organization of human values—evidence from three rounds of the European Social Survey (ESS). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. doi: 10.1177/0022022110362757.
- Cattell, R. B. (1957). Personality and motivation: Structure and measurement. New York, NY: World Book.Google Scholar
- Krosnick, J. A., & Fabrigar, L. R. (1997). Designing rating scales for effective measurement in surveys. In L. E. Lyberg, P. Biemer, M. Collins, E. D. de Leeuw, C. Dippo, N. Schwarz, & D. Trewin (Eds.), Survey measurement and process quality (pp. 14–164). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Krosnick, J. A., & Presser, S. (2010). Question and questionnaire design. In P. Marsden & J. D. Wright (Eds.), Handbook of survey research (Vol. 2, pp. 263–314). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
- Maio, G. R., Olson, J. M., Bernard, M., & Luke, M. (2003). Ideologies, values, attitudes, and behavior. In T. J. Delamater (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology (pp. 283–308). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
- Meglino, B. M., & Ravlin, E. C. (1998). Individual values in organizations: Concepts, controversies, and research. Journal of Management, 24, 351–389.Google Scholar
- Murphy, P. E. (1988). Implementing business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 907–915.Google Scholar
- Olson, J. M., & Maio, G. R. (2003). Attitudes in social behaviour. In M. J. Lerner & T. Millon (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Personality and social psychology (pp. 299–325). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
- O’Muircheartaigh, C., Krosnick, J. A., & Helic, A. (1999). Middle alternatives, acquiescence, and the quality of questionnaire data. Paper Presented at the American Association for Public Opinion Research annual meeting, St. Petersburg, FL.Google Scholar
- Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1–65). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Schwartz, S. H. (2005). Robustness and fruitfulness of a theory of universals in individual human values. In A. Tamayo & J. B. Porto (Eds.), Valores e comportamento nas organizações [Values and behavior in organizations] (pp. 56–95). Petrópolis, BRA: Vozes.Google Scholar
- van Quaquebeke, N., & Brodbeck, F. C. (2008). Entwicklung und erste Validierung zweier Instrumente zur Erfassung von Führungskräfte-Kategorisierung im deutschsprachigen Raum [Development and first validation of two scales to measure leader categorization in German-speaking countries]. Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 52, 70–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- van Quaquebeke, N., van Knippenberg, D., & Brodbeck, F. C. (2011). More than meets the eye: The role of subordinates’ self-perceptions in leader categorization processes. The Leadership Quarterly, 10, 367–382.Google Scholar
- Yukl, G. A. (2010). Leadership in organizations (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar