Convergence Versus Divergence of CSR in Developing Countries: An Embedded Multi-Layered Institutional Lens
- 2k Downloads
This paper capitalizes on an institutional perspective to analyze corporate social responsibility (CSR) orientations in the Lebanese context. Specifically, the paper compiles a new theoretical framework drawing on a multi-level model of institutional flows by Scott (Institutions and organizations: ideas and interests, 2008) and the explicit/implicit CSR model by Matten and Moon (Acad Manag Rev 33(2):404–424, 2008). This new theoretical framework is then used to explore the CSR convergence versus divergence question in a developing country context. The findings highlight the usefulness of the compiled multi-layered institutional framework and the varied nuances and profound insights it offers in analyzing CSR in context. They also suggest that a cosmetic level of global convergence in explicit CSR may materialize in light of mimetic isomorphic pressures, but that the path dependence hypothesis is indeed salient in light of national history trajectories and socio-politico configurations. The findings correspond most closely to patterns of CSR crossvergence, combining elements of both convergence and divergence, and reflecting in complex hybridized CSR expressions. The findings and their implications are presented and assessed.
Keywordscorporate social responsibility (CSR) institutional theory convergence divergence multinational corporations (MNCs) small and medium enterprises (SMEs) developing countries
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The authors wish to acknowledge and express sincere thanks and appreciation to Professor Bryan Husted Professor Dirk Matten and Dr. Bijan Azad for their constructive comments on earlier drafts of this paper. They also wish to thank the anonymous reviewers for their round(s) of most constructive comments. The first author also wishes to acknowledge generous funding support from the University Research Board (URB) at the American University of Beirut for this research.
- Amaeshi, K., Adi, B., Ogbechie, C. and Amao, O. (2006). CSR In Nigeria: Western Mimicry or Indigenous Influences? The Journal of Corporate Citizenship, Vol. 24, pp. 83-99.Google Scholar
- American Lebanese Chamber of Commerce (AmCham Lebanon) on Line Newsletter, www.amcham.org.lb.
- Chandler, A. D. (1962). Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the Industrial Enterprise. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
- De Mooij, M. (2004). Consumer Bahavior and Culture: Consequences for Global Marketing and Advertising. Sage, Thousand Oaks.Google Scholar
- Economist Intelligence Unit: 2007, Country Profile 2007 – Lebanon (The Economist Intelligence Unit, London).Google Scholar
- European Commission: 2002, Corporate Social Responsibility: A Business Contribution to Sustainable Development (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg) [Online], http://ew.eea.europa.eu/Industry/Reporting/cec__corporate_responsibility/com2001_0366en01.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2009.
- Fukuyama, F. (1992). The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press.Google Scholar
- Gat, A.: 2007, ‘The End of the End of History’, Foreign Affairs, July/August 2007.Google Scholar
- Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. (1967). Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
- Greenwood, R. and Hinings, C. (1996). Understanding Radical Organizational Change: Bringing Together the Old and the New Institutionalism. The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 1022-1054.Google Scholar
- Hall, P. A. and Soskice, D. (2001). Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
- Kotler, P., and Lee, N. (2005). Corporate Social Responsibility – Doing the Most Good for Your Company and Your Cause. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
- Kraatz, M. and Block, E. (2008). Organizational Implications of Institutional Pluralism. In The Sage Handbook for Organizational Institutionalism (Greenwood, R., Oliver, C., Suddaby, R. and Sahlin, K. Eds). Sage Publications, Ltd, pp. 243-275.Google Scholar
- Levitt, T. (1983). The Globalization of Markets. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 92-102.Google Scholar
- Oliver, C. (1991). Strategic Responses to Institutional Processes. The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 145-179.Google Scholar
- Patton, M., Q. (2002) Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods, 3rd edition, London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Perrow, C. (1979). Complex Organizations: A Critical Essay (2nd Edition). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
- Ritzer, G. (2004). The McDonaldization of Society: Revised New Century Edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
- Scott, W. R. (1994). Conceptualizing Organizational Fields: Linking Organizations and Societal Systems. In: Derlien, H., Gerhardt, U., Scharpf, F. (Eds) Systems Rationality and Partial Interests. Nomos-Verlag, Germany, pp 203-221.Google Scholar
- Scott, W. R. (2008). Institutions and Organizations: Ideas and Interests. Sage. Thousand Oaks, California.Google Scholar
- Sidani, Y. (2002), Management In Lebanon. In Malcolm Warner (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Business and Management, Second Edition, Thomson Learning, pp. 3797-3802.Google Scholar
- UK Institute of Directors: 2002, ‘A Guide to Corporate Social Responsibility’, www.6.miami.edu/ethics/pdf_files/csr_guide.pdf, pp. 1–12.
- Wooten, M., and Hoffman, A. (2008). Organizational Fields: Past, Present and Future. In The Sage Handbook for Organizational Institutionalism (Greenwood, R., Oliver, C., Suddaby, R. and Sahlin, K. Eds). Sage Publications, Ltd, pp. 130-147.Google Scholar
- World Bank (2005). The Status and Progress of Women in the Middle East and North Africa. World Bank Middle East and North Africa Socio-Economic Development Group, Washington.Google Scholar