Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 88, Supplement 4, pp 685–692 | Cite as

Creating Ties That Bind

  • R. Edward Freeman
  • Jared D. Harris


The work of Donaldson and Dunfee (Ties That Bind: A Social Contracts Approach to Business Ethics, 1999) offers an example of how normative and descriptive approaches to business ethics can be integrated. We suggest that to be truly integrative, however, the theory should explore the processes by which such integration happens. We, therefore, sketch some preliminary thoughts that extend Integrative Social Contracts Theory (ISCT) by beginning to consider the process by which microsocial contracts are connected to hypernorms.


integrative social contracts theory hypernorms moral disagreement reflective equilibrium 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Elis and Signe Olsson Professor of Business Administration, Darden School of Business AdministrationUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleU.S.A.

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