Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 93, Issue 4, pp 583–605 | Cite as

The Relationship Between Individuals’ Recognition of Human Rights and Responses to Socially Responsible Companies: Evidence from Russia and Bulgaria

  • Petya Puncheva-Michelotti
  • Marco Michelotti
  • Peter Gahan


An emerging body of literature has highlighted a gap in our understanding of the extent to which the salience attached to human rights is likely to influence the extent to which an individual takes account of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in decision making. The primary aim of this study is to begin to address this gap by understanding how individuals attribute different emphasis on specific aspects of human rights when making decisions to purchase, work, invest or support the community operations for socially responsible organisations. In order to achieve this objective, a survey instrument was administered to professionals in Russia and Bulgaria. Our data indicate that there is a significant correlation between individuals’ sensitivity towards different components of human rights and their perceptions of the importance of CSR in decision making. Specifically, the recognition of political rights was strongly associated with the willingness to purchase, invest, seek employment and support socially responsible firms. Our analysis also outlines significant differences between the Russian and the Bulgarian samples with regard to the manners in which individuals rate the importance of civil, political and economic human rights.

Key words

corporate social responsibility human rights stakeholder decision making transition countries 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ajzen, I.: 1985, ‘From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior’, in Kuhl, J. and J. Beckman (eds.), Action-Control: From Cognition to Behaviour, (Heidelberg: Springer), 11-39.Google Scholar
  2. Albinger, H. S. and S. J. Freeman: 2000, ‘Corporate Social Performance and Attractiveness as an Employer to Different Job Seeking Populations’. Journal of Business Ethics 28 (3), 243-253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, C. J., P. M. Regan, and R. L. Ostergard: 2002, ‘Political Repression and Public Perceptions of Human Rights’. Political Research Quarterly 55(2), 439-456.Google Scholar
  4. Anon: 1999, ‘Millennium Poll on Corporate Social Responsibility’, Environics International Ltd,
  5. Arnold, S. J., J. M. Handelman, and D. J. Tigert: 1996, ‘Organizational Legitimacy and Retail Store Patronage’, Journal of Business Research 35(3), 229-239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Axinn, C. N., M. E. Blair, A. Heorhiadi, and S. V. Thach: 2004, ‘Comparing Ethical Ideologies across Cultures’, Journal of Business Ethics 4(2), 103–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Babakus, E., T. B. Cornwell, V. Mitchell, and B. Schlegelmilch: 2004, ‘Reactions to Unethical Consumer Behavior across Six Countries’, Journal of Consumer Marketing 21(4), 254-263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Backhaus, K. B., B. A. Stone, and K. Heiner: 2002, ‘Exploring the Relationship between Corporate Social Performance and Employer Attractiveness’, Business and Society 41(3), 292-318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bae, J. and G. T. Cameron: 2006, ‘Conditioning Effect of Prior Reputation on Perception of Corporate Giving’, Public Relations Review 32 (2), 144–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beekun, R. I., Y. Stedham, J. H. Yamamura, and J. A. Barghouti: 2003, ‘Comparing Business Ethics in Russia and the US’, International Journal of Human Resource Management 14(8), 1333-1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bethoux, E., C. Didry, and A. Mias: 2007, ‘What Codes of Conduct Tell Us: Corporate Social Responsibility and the Nature of the Multinational Corporation’, Corporate Governance: An International Review 15(1), 77-90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blanton, S. L. and R. G. Blanton: 2006, ‘Human Rights and Foreign Direct Investment: A Two-Stage Analysis’, Business and Society 45(4), 464-485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brønn, P. S. and D. Vidaver-Cohen: 2009, ‘Corporate Motives for Social Initiative: Legitimacy, Sustainability, or the Bottom Line?’, Journal of Business Ethics 87 (Supplement 1), 91-109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brønn, P. S. and A. B. Vrioni: 2001, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility and Cause Related Marketing: An Overview’, International Journal of Adveristing 20(2), 207-222.Google Scholar
  15. Brown, T. J. and P. A. Dacin: 1997, ‘The Company and the Product: Corporate Associations and Consumer Product Responses’, Journal of Marketing 61(1), 68-85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Campbell, T.: 2006, ‘A Human Rights Approach to Developing Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations’, Business Ethics Quarterly 16(2), 255-269.Google Scholar
  17. Campbell, J. L.: 2007, ‘Why Would Corporations Behave in Socially Responsible Ways? An Institutional Theory of Corporate Social Responsibility’, Academy of Management Review 32(3), 946-967.Google Scholar
  18. Carlson, M. and O. Listhaug: 2007, ‘Citizens’ Perceptions of Human Rights Practices: An Analysis of 55 Countries’, Journal of Peace Research 44(4), 465–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carter, C. R. and M. M. Jennings: 2004, ‘The Role of Purchasing in Corporate Social Responsibility: A Structural Equation Analysis’, Journal of Business Logistics 25(1), 145–186.Google Scholar
  20. Caruana, A.: 1997, ‘Corporate Reputation: Concept and Measurement’, Journal of Product and Brand Management 6(2), 109-118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohrs, J. C., J. Maes, B. Moschner, and S. Kielmann: 2007, ‘Determinants of Human Rights Attitudes and Behavior: A Comparison and Integration of Psychological Perspectives’, Political Psychology 28(4), 441-469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cox, P., S. Brammer, and A. Millington: 2004, ‘Institutional Investors and Corporate Social Performance’, Journal of Business Ethics 52(1), 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dean, D. H.: 2003, ‘Consumer Perception of Corporate Donations: Effects of Company Reputation for Social Responsibility and Type of Donation’. Journal of Advertising 32(4), 91-102.Google Scholar
  24. Egels-Zanden, N. and P. Hyllman: 2007, ‘Evaluating Strategies for Negotiating Workers’ Rights in Transnational Corporations: The Effects of Codes of Conduct and Global Agreements on Workplace Democracy’. Journal of Business Ethics 76(2), 207-223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ellen, P. S., D. J. Webb, and L. A. Mohr: 2006, ‘Building Corporate Associations: Consumer Attributions for Corporate Socially Responsible Programs’, Academy of Marketing Science. Journal 34(2), 147-157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Elms, H.: 2006, ‘Corporate (and Stakeholder) Responsibility in Central and Eastern Europe’, International Journal of Emerging Markets 1(3), 203-211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fombrun, C. J., N. A. Gardberg, and Sever: 2000, ‘The Reputation Quotient: A Multi-Stakeholder Measure of Corporate Reputation’, The Journal of Brand Management 7(4), 241-255.Google Scholar
  28. Forsyth, D. R.: 1980, ‘A Taxonomy of Ethical Ideologies’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39(1), 175-184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Frederick, W. C.: 1991, ‘The Moral Authority of Transnational Corporate Codes’, Journal of Business Ethics 10(3), 165-177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fryxell, G. E. and J. Wang: 1994, ‘The Fortune Corporate ‘Reputation’ Index: Reputation for What?’, Journal of Management 20(1), 1-14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gatewood, R. D., M. A. Gowan, and G. J. Lautenschlager: 1993, ‘Corporate Image, Recruitment Image, and Initial Job Choice Decisions’, Academy of Management Journal 36(2), 414–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goldman, D.: 2008, ‘Bailouts: $7 Trillion and Rising’, CNNMoney, 28 NovemberGoogle Scholar
  33. Golob, U. S. and J. L. Bartlett: 2007, ‘Communicating About Corporate Social Responsibility: A Comparative Study of CSR Reporting in Australia and Slovenia’, Public Relations Review 33(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gonzalez, M. D. L. C. and C. V. Martinez: 2004, ‘Fostering Corporate Social Responsibility through Public Initiative: From the EU to the Spanish Case’, Journal of Business Ethics 55(3), 275-293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Groenland, E. A. G.: 2002, ‘Qualitative Research to Validate the RQ-Dimensions’, Corporate Reputation Review 4(4), 308-315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hair, J. F.: 1998, ‘Multivariate Data Analysis’ (Upper Saddle River, N.J., Prentice Hall).Google Scholar
  37. Hancock, L.: 2006, ‘The Advantages of a Proactive Business Response to Human Rights Reporting’, The Journal of Corporate Citizenship 23, 21-24.Google Scholar
  38. Handelman, J. M. and S. J. Arnold: 1999, ‘The Role of Marketing Actions with a Social Dimension: Appeals to the Institutional Environment’, Journal of Marketing 63(3), 33-48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hatch, M. J. and M. Schultz: 1997, ‘Relationship between Organizational Culture Identity and Image’, European Journal of Marketing, 31(5/6), 356-365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Helm, S.: 2007, ‘One Reputation or Many? Comparing Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Corporate Reputation’, Corporate Communications: An International Journal 12(3), 238-254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Herremans, I. M., P. Akathaporn, and M. McInnes: 1993, ‘An Investigation of Corporate Social Responsibility Reputation and Economic Performance’, Accounting, Organizations and Society 18(7-8), 587-604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Highhouse, S., E. E. Thornburya, and I. S. Little: 2007, ‘Social-Identity Functions of Attraction to Organizations’. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 103(1), 134-146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hisrich, R. D., B. Bucar, and S. Oztark: 2003, ‘A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Business Ethics: Cases of Russia, Slovenia, Turkey, and United States’, Cross Cultural Management 10(1), 3-28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hockerts, K. and L. Moir: 2004, ‘Communicating Corporate Responsibility to Investors: The Changing Role of the Investor Relations Function’, Journal of Business Ethics 52(1), 85-98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoeffler, S. and K. L. Keller: 2002, ‘Building Brand Equity through Corporate Societal Marketing’, Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 21(1), 78-89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hofmann, E., E. Hoelzl, and E. Kirchler: 2008, A Comparison of Models Describing the Impact of Moral Decision Making on Investment Decisions, Journal of Business Ethics 81(1), 171-187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Holzer, B.: 2007, ‘Framing the Corporation: Royal Dutch/Shell and Human Rights Woes in Nigeria’, Journal of Consumer Policy 30(3), 281-301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hummels, H. and D. Timmer: 2004, ‘Investors in Need of Social, Ethical, and Environmental Information’, Journal of Business Ethics 52(1), 73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hutton, R. B., L. D’Antonio, and T. Johnsen: 1998, ‘Socially Responsible Investing: Growing Issues and New Opportunities’, Business and Society 37(3), 281-305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Idowu, S. O. and I. Papasolomou: 2007, ‘Are the Corporate Social Responsibility Matters Based on Good Intentions or False Pretences? An Empirical Study of the Motivations Behind the Issuing of CSR Reports by UK Companies’, Corporate Governance 7(2), 136-147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jones, M., S. Marshall, and R. Mitchell: 2007, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility and the Management of Labour in Two Australian Mining Industry Companies’, Corporate Governance: An International Review 15(1), 57-67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jones, R. and A. J. Murrell: 2001, ‘Signalling Positive Corporate Social Performance’, Business and Society 40(1), 59-78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Karpukhin, O. I.: 2001, ‘The Young People of Russia: Characteristics of Their Socialization and Self-Determination’, Russian Social Science Review 42(5), 4-14.Google Scholar
  54. Karstedt, S.: 2008, ‘Democratization and Violence: European and International Perspectives’, in S. Body-Gendrot (ed.), Violence in Europe: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (Springer, New York)Google Scholar
  55. Lantos, G. P.: 2002, ‘The Ethicality of Altruistic Corporate Social Responsibility’, Journal of Consumer Marketing 19(3), 205-230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lauer, T., B. Rockenbach, and P. Walgenbach: 2008, ‘Not Just Hot Air: Normative Codes of Conduct Induce Cooperative Behavior’, Review of Management Science 2(3), 183-197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lemmink, J., A. Schuijf, and S. Streukens: 2003, ‘The Role of Corporate Image and Company Employment Image in Explaining Application Intentions’, Journal of Economic Psychology 24(1), 1-15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Little, P. L. and B. L. Little: 2000, ‘Do Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility Contribute to Explaining Differences in Corporate Price-Earnings Ratios? A Research Note’, Corporate Reputation Review 3(2), 134-142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Livesey, S. M. and K. Kearins: 2002, ‘Transparent and Caring Corporations? A Study of Sustainability Reports by the Body Shop and Royal Dutch/Shell’, Organization and Environment 15(3), 233-259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mackey, A., T. B. Mackey, and J. B. Barney: 2007, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Performance: Investor Preferences and Corporate Strategies’, Academy of Management Review 32(3), 817-835.Google Scholar
  61. MacMillan, K., K. Money, and S. Downing: 2002, ‘Best and Worst Corporate Reputations - Nominations by the General Public’, Corporate Reputation Review 4(4), 374-384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Maignan, I. and O. C. Ferrell: 2003, ‘Nature of Corporate Responsibilities: Perspectives from American, French, and German Consumers’, Journal of Business Research 56(1), 55-67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Maignan, I., O. C. Ferrell, and L. Ferrell: 2005, ‘A Stakeholder Model for Implementing Social Responsibility in Marketing’, European Journal of Marketing 39(9/10), 956-977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McAlister, D. T. and L. Ferrell: 2002, ‘The Role of Strategic Philanthropy in Marketing Strategy’, European Journal of Marketing 36(5-6), 689-705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McDonagh, P.: 2002, ‘Communicative Campaigns to Effect Anti-Slavery and Fair Trade: The Cases of Rugmark and Cafedirect’, European Journal of Marketing 36(5/6), 242-266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McFarland, S. and M. Mathews: 2005, ‘Who Cares About Human Rights?’, Political Psychology 26(3), 365-385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McInnis, C. and R. Hartley: 2002, Managing Study and Work: The Impact of Full-Time Study and Paid Work on the Undergraduate Experience in Australian Universities, (Canberra, Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Australia).Google Scholar
  68. McLachlan, J. and J. Gardner: 2004, ‘A Comparison of Socially Responsible and Conventional Investors’, Journal of Business Ethics 52(1), 11-25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Meijer, M.-M. and T. Schuyt: 2005, ‘Corporate Social Performance as a Bottom Line for Consumers’, Business and Society 44(4), 442-461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Micheletti, M. and A. Follesdal: 2007, ‘Shopping for Human Rights. An Introduction to the Special Issue’, Journal of Consumer Policy 30(3), 167-175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Michelson, G., N. Wailes, S. V. D. Laan, and G. Frost: 2004, ‘Ethical Investment Processes and Outcomes’, Journal of Business Ethics, 52(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Neumann, C., A. Evers, G. Sommer and J. Stellmacher: 1999, ‘Wissen Und Einstellung Bezüglich Menschenrechten Im Verlauf Eines Seminars [Human Rights: Knowledge and Attitudes in the Process of a University Course]’, in G. Sommer, J. Stellmacher and U. Wagner (eds.), Menschenrechte Und Frieden. Aktuelle Beiträge Und Debatten [Human Rights and Peace. Current Contributions and Controversies] (IAFA, Marburg, Germany)Google Scholar
  73. Nilsson, J.: 2008, ‘Investment with a Conscience: Examining the Impact of Pro-Social Attitudes and Perceived Financial Performance on Socially Responsible Investment Behavior’, Journal of Business Ethics 83(2), 307-325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ou, W.-M., R. Abratt, and P. Dion: 2006, ‘The Influence of Retailer Reputation on Store Patronage’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 13(3), 221-230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Parkan, B.: 2009, ‘On Multinational Corporations and the Provision of Positive Rights’, Journal of Business Ethics 85(1), 73-82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pelsmacker, P. D., W. Janssens, E. Sterckx, and C. Mielants: 2006, ‘Fair-Trade Beliefs, Attitudes and Buying Behaviour of Belgian Consumers’, International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing 11(2), 125-138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pirsch, J., S. Gupta, and S. L. Grau: 2007, ‘A Framework for Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility Programs as a Continuum: An Exploratory Study’, Journal of Business Ethics 70(2), 125–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Prieto-Carron, M.: 2008, ‘Women Workers, Industrialization, Global Supply Chains and Corporate Codes of Conduct’, Journal of Business Ethics 83(1), 5-17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Roth, P. L.: 1994, ‘Missing Data: A Conceptual Review for Applied Psychologists’, Personnel Psychology 47(3), 537–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ruggie, J.: 2007, Business and Human Rights: Mapping International Standards of Responsibility and Accountability for Corporate Acts, United Nations, Human Rights Council, February 2007.Google Scholar
  81. Schwartz, M. S.: 2002, ‘A Code of Ethics for Corporate Code of Ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics 41(1), 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sen, S., C. B. Bhattacharya, and D. Korschun: 2006, ‘The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Strengthening Multiple Stakeholder Relationships: A Field Experiment’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 34 (2), 158-166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sethi, S. P.: 2005, ‘The Effectiveness of Industry-Based Codes in Serving Public Interest: The Case of the International Council on Mining and Metals’, Transnational Corporations 14(3), 55-99.Google Scholar
  84. Shaw, D. and E. Shiu: 2002, ‘The Role of Ethical Obligation and Self-Identity in Ethical Consumer Choice’, International Journal of Consumer Studies 26(2), 109–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shefrin, H.: 2001, ‘Do Investors Expect Higher Returns from Safer Stocks than from Riskier Stocks?’, The Journal of Psychology and Financial Markets 2(4), 176-181.Google Scholar
  86. Singh, J., M. d. M. G. D. L. S. Sanchez, and I. R. d. Bosque: 2008, ‘Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility and Product Perceptions in Consumer Markets: A Cross-Cultural Evaluation’, Journal of Business Ethics 80(3), 597-611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Snider, J., R. P. Hill, and D. Martin: 2003, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility in the 21st Century: A View from the World’s Most Successful’, Journal of Business Ethics 48(2), 175-187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sommer, G.: 2001, ‘Menschenrechtsverletzungen Als Legitimationsgrundlage Des Jugoslawien-Kosovo-Krieges? [Human Rights Violations as a Legitimization for the Yugoslavia-Kosovo War?]’, in M. Becker and G. Brücher (eds.), Der JugoslawienkriegEine Zwischenbilanz [The War Against YugoslaviaInterim Result] (LIT, Münster, Germany)Google Scholar
  89. Stellmacher, J., G. Sommer, and E. Brahler: 2005, ‘The Cognitive Representation of Human Rights: Knowledge, Importance, and Commitment’, Peace and Conflict 11(3), 267-292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tabachnick, B. G. and L. S. Fidell: 2001, ‘Using Multivariate Statistics’, 4 ed. (Needham Heights, MA, Pearson Education).Google Scholar
  91. Thevissen, F.: 2002, ‘Corporate Reputation in the Eye of the Beholder’, Corporate Reputation Review 4(4), 318-326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. L. Tucker, J., I. J. Dolich, and D. Wilson: 1981, ‘Profiling Environmentally Responsible Consumer-Citizens’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 9(4), 454-478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Turban, D. B. and D. W. Greening: 1996, ‘Corporate Social Performance and Organizational Attractiveness to Prospective Employees’, Academy of Management Journal 40(3), 658-672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. United Nations: 2002, ‘Human RightsA Compilation of International Instruments’ (United Nations, New York)Google Scholar
  95. Vaaland, T. I., M. Heide, and K. Grønhaug: 2008, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: Investigating Theory and Research in the Marketing Context’, European Journal of Marketing 42(9/10), 927-953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wagner-Tsukamoto, S.: 2007, ‘Moral Agency, Profits and the Firm: Economic Revisions to the Friedman Theorem’, Journal of Business Ethics 70(2), 209–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Welford, R.: 2002, ‘Globalization, Corporate Social Responsibility and Human Rights’, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 9(1), 1-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Williamson, O. E.: 1985, ‘The Economic Institutions of Capitalism’ (New York, Free Press).Google Scholar
  99. Woldu, H. G., P. S. Budhwar, and C. Parkes: 2006, ‘A Cross-National Comparison of Cultural Value Orientations of Indian, Polish, Russian and American Employees’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(6): 1076-1094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wood, G.: 2000, ‘A Cross Cultural Comparison of the Contents of Codes of Ethics: USA, Canada and Australia’, Journal of Business Ethics 25(4): 287–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Woolfson, C. and M. Beck: 2003, ‘The Right to Strike, Labor Market Liberalization and the New Labor Code in Pre-Accession Lithuania’, Review of Central and East European Law 28(1), 77-102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wright, C. and A. Rwabizambuga: 2006, ‘Institutional Pressures, Corporate Reputation, and Voluntary Codes of Conduct: An Examination of the Equator Principles’, Business and Society Review 111(1), 89-117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yu, X.: 2008, ‘From Passive Beneficiary to Active Stakeholder: Workers’ Participation in CSR Movement against Labor Abuses’, Journal of Business Ethics 87(1), 233-249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zarkada-Fraser, A. and C. Fraser: 2002, ‘Store Patronage Prediction for Foreign-Owned Supermarkets’, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 30(6), 282-299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petya Puncheva-Michelotti
    • 1
  • Marco Michelotti
    • 1
  • Peter Gahan
    • 2
  1. 1.ESC Rennes School of BusinessRennes CedexFrance
  2. 2.Department of Management, Faculty of Business and EconomicsMonash UniversityCaulfieldAustralia

Personalised recommendations