Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 93, Issue 1, pp 91–101 | Cite as

Love, Forgiveness, and Trust: Critical Values of the Modern Leader

  • Cam Caldwell
  • Rolf D. Dixon
Article

Abstract

In a world that has become increasingly dependent upon employee ownership, commitment, and initiative, organizations need leaders who can inspire their␣employees and motivate them individually. Love, forgiveness, and trust are critical values of today’s organization leaders who are committed to maximizing value for organizations while helping organization members to become their best. We explain the importance of love, forgiveness, and trust in the modern organization and identify 10 commonalities of these virtues.

Key words

love forgiveness trust ethical leadership caring 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albrecht, K., (2006). Social Intelligence: The New Science of Success. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  2. Aquino, K., Grover, S. L., Goldman, B., and Folger, R. (2003). “When Push Doesn’t Come to Shove.” Journal of Management Inquiry, Vol. 12, Iss. 3, pp. 209-216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Autry, J. A. (1991). Love and Profit: The Art of Caring Leadership. New York: Avon Books.Google Scholar
  4. Baer, G. (2007). Real Love in the Workplace: Eight Principles for Consistently Effective Leadership in Business. Rome, GA: Blueridge Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A., (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Barling, J., N. Turner, H. Dezan and H. Carroll: 2008, ‹The Nature and Consequences of Apologies from Leaders in Organizations’, Academy of Management Proceedings, 1–6Google Scholar
  7. Barnard, C. I., (1938). Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Batten, J. (1999). “Lead with Love.” Executive Excellence, 16, 14.Google Scholar
  9. Baucus, M. S., Norton, W. I., Jr., Baucus, D. A., and Human, S. E., (2007). “Fostering Creativity and Innovation without Encouraging Unethical Behavior.” Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 81, pp. 97-115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benni, W. and Nanus, B., (2007). Leaders. New York: Collins Business Essentials.Google Scholar
  11. Bennis, W.: 2009, On Becoming a Leader (Revised Edition) (Addison-Wesley Publishing, New York)Google Scholar
  12. Block, P., (1996). Stewardship: Choosing Service over Self-Interest. San Francisco: CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  13. Boyatzis, R. and McKee, A. (2005). Resonant Leadership: Renewing Yourself and Connecting with Others Through Mindfulness, Hope, and Compassion. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bright, D. S., Cameron, K. S., and Caza, A., (2006). “The Amplifying and Buffering Effects of Virtuousness in Downsized Organizations.” Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 64, pp. 249-269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buber, M., (2008). I and Thou. New York: Touchstone.Google Scholar
  16. Caldwell, C., Bischoff, S. J., and Karri, R. March, (2002). “The Four Umpires: A Paradigm for Ethical Leadership,” Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 36, Iss. 1/2, pp. 153-163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caldwell, C. and S. Clapham: 2003, ‹Organizational Trustworthiness: An International Perspective’, Journal of Business Ethics 47(4), 349–364Google Scholar
  18. Caldwell, C. and Hayes, L., (2007) Leadership, Trustworthiness, and the Mediating Lens.” The Journal of Management Development. Vol.26, Iss. 3; pp. 261-274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Caldwell, C., Davis, B., and Devine, J. A., (2009). “Trust, Faith, and Betrayal: Insights from Management for the Wise Believer.” Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 89, Iss. 1, pp. 103-114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Caldwell, C., Hayes, L., Karri, R., and Bernal, P., (2008). “Ethical Stewardship: The Role of Leadership Behavior and Perceived Trustworthiness.” Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 78, Iss. 1/2, pp. 153-164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cameron, K. S., (2003). “Ethics, Virtuousness, and Constant Change,” in N. M. Tichy and A. R. McGill (Eds.). The Ethical Challenge: How to Lead with Unyielding Integrity. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, pp. 185-194.Google Scholar
  22. Cameron, K. S., (2006). “Good or Not Bad: Standards and Ethics in Managing Change.” Academy of Management Learning and Education, Vol. 5, Iss. 3, pp. 317-323.Google Scholar
  23. Cameron, K. S., (2008). “Leading Change.” Leadership Excellence, Vol. 25, Iss. 5, p. 12.Google Scholar
  24. Cameron, K. S., Bright, D., and Caza, A. (2004). “Exploring the Relationships between Organizational Virtuousness and Performance.” The American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 47, Iss. 6, pp. 766-790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cameron, K. S., Dutton, J. E., and Quinn, R. E. (2003). Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  26. Carroll, A. B., and Buchholtz, A. K., (2008). Business and Society: Ethics and Stakeholder Management. Mason, OH: South-Western College Publishing.Google Scholar
  27. Caza, A., Barker, B. A., and Cameron, K. S., (2004). “Ethics and Ethos: The Buffering and Amplifying Effects of Ethical Behavior and Virtuousness.” Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 52, Iss. 2, pp. 169-178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chan, Y. H., Taylor, R. R., and Markham, S., (2008). “The Role of Subordinates’ Trust in a Social Exchange-driven Psychological Empowerment Process.” Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol. 20, Iss. 4, pp. 444-467.Google Scholar
  29. Child, J., and Rodrigues, S. B., (2004). “Repairing the Breach of Trust in Corporate Governance.” Corporate Governance: An International Review, Vol. 12, Iss. 2, pp. 143-152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Collins, J., (2001). Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap… and Others Don’t. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  31. Covey, S. R., (2004). The 8 th Habit: From Effectiveness to Greatness. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  32. DePree, M. (2004). Leadership is an Art. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  33. Dering, N. Z., (1998). “Leadership in Quality Organizations.” The Journal for Quality and Participation, Vol. 21, Iss. 1, pp. 32-35.Google Scholar
  34. Enright, R. D., (2001). Forgiveness is a Choice: A Step-by-Step Process for Resolving Anger and Restoring Hope. Washington, DC:APA Life Tools.Google Scholar
  35. Federman, I.: 1991, Remarks Made to the Leavey School of Business and Administration, Santa Clara University, 2 April, 1991 reported in Kouzes, J. M. and Posner, B. -Z.: 2003, Credibility: How Leaders Gain and Lose It, why People Demand It (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA).Google Scholar
  36. Ferch, S. R., (2004). “Servant-Leadership, Forgiveness, and Social Justice”. In Larry C. Spears and Michelle Lawrence (eds.) Practicing Servant Leadership: Succeeding through Trust, Bravery, and Forgiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, pp. 225-239.Google Scholar
  37. Ferris, R., (1988). “How Organizational Love Can Improve Leadership.” Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 16, Iss. 4, pp. 41-51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fishbein, M, and Ajzen, I., (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing.Google Scholar
  39. Freedman, D., (2001). Corps Business: The 30 Management Principles of the U.S. Marines. New York: HarperBusiness.Google Scholar
  40. Freeman, R. E., Martin, K., Parmar, B., Werhane, P., and Cording, M., (2006). “Leading through Values and Ethical Principles.” Inspired Leaders. R. Burke and C. Cooper (Eds.). London: Routledge, Taylor, and Francis Group, pp. 149-174.Google Scholar
  41. Fromm, E., (1956). The Art of Loving. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  42. Goleman, D., (2006). Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  43. Goonan, K. J., (2007). “Caring Culture and Results Focus Lead to Baldridge Award.” Quality Progress, Vol. 40, Iss. 3, pp. 41-48.Google Scholar
  44. Grant, K., (2008). “Imperfect People Leading Imperfect People: Creating Environments of Forgiveness.” Interbeing, Vol. 2, Iss. 2, pp. 11-17.Google Scholar
  45. Greenleaf, R. K., (1998a) The Power of Servant Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Berrettt-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  46. Greenleaf, R. K. (1998b). “Servant Leadership.” L. C. Spears, (Ed.) in Insights on Leadership: Service, Stewardship, Spirit, and Servant Leadership. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  47. Greenleaf, R. K. (2003). The Servant-Leader Within: A Transformative Path. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press.Google Scholar
  48. Hacker, S. and Roberts, T., (2003). Transformational Leadership: Creating Organizations of Meaning. Wooster, OH: ASQ Quality Press.Google Scholar
  49. Hammarskjold, D., (2001). Markings, New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  50. Hosmer, L. T.: 1995, ‹Trust: The Connecting Link between Organizational Theory and Behavior’, Academy of Management Review 20, 379–404Google Scholar
  51. Hosmer, L., (2007). The Ethics of Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  52. Hunter, J. C., (1998). The Servant: A Simple Story about the True Essence of Leadership. Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing.Google Scholar
  53. Kaufmann, W., (1970). I and Thou Martin Buber. New York: Touchstone.Google Scholar
  54. Koestenbaum, P. (2002). Leadership: The Inner Side of Greatness, A Philosophy for Leaders, New and Revised. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  55. Kouzes, J. M., and Posner, B. Z., (2003a). Credibility: How Leaders Gain and Lose It, Why People Demand It (2nd Edition). SanFrancisco, CA: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  56. Kouzes, J. M. and Posner, B. Z. (2003b). Encouraging the Heart: A Leader’s Guide to Rewarding and Recognizing Others. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Boss.Google Scholar
  57. Kouzes, J. M. and Posner, B. Z. (2006). A Leader’s Legacy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  58. Kramer, R., (1999). “Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Emerging Perspectives, Enduring Questions.” Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 50, Iss. 1, pp. 569-596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lennick, D., and Kiel, F., (2008). Moral Intelligence: Enhancing Business Performance & Leadership Success. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton Business School Publishing.Google Scholar
  60. Lussier, R. N., and Achua, C. F., (2004). Leadership: Theory, Application, Skill Development. Mason, OH: South-Western Publishing.Google Scholar
  61. Mayer, R.C., Davis, J. H., and Schoorman, F. D., (1995), “An Integration Model of Organizational Trust.” Academy of Management Review, 20, 709-729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McAllister, D. J., (1995). “Affect- and Cognition-Based Trust as Foundations for Interpersonal Cooperation in Organizations. “Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38. Iss. 1, pp. 24-59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McKnight, D. H., Cummings, L. L., & Chervany, N. L., (1998). “Initial Trust Formation in New Organizational Relationships.” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 23, Iss.3, pp. 473-490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Organ, D., (1988). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  65. Paine, L. S., (2003). Value Shift: Why Companies Must Merge Social and Financial Imperatives to Achieve Superior Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  66. Pava, M. L., (2003). Leading with Meaning: Using Covenantal Leadership to Build a Better Organization. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
  67. Peck, M. S., (2004). The Road Less Traveled, 25 th Anniversary Edition: A New Psychology of Love, Traditional Values, and Spiritual Growth. New York: Touchstone.Google Scholar
  68. Pellicer, L. O., (2008). Caring Enough to Lead: How Reflective Practice Leads to Moral Leadership (3rd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  69. Pfeffer, J., (1998). The Human Equation: Building Power by Putting People First. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  70. Quinn, R. E., (2004). “Building the Bridge as You Walk On It.” Leader to Leader, Vol. 2004, Iss. 34, pp. 21-26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Quinn, R. E., (2005). “Moments of Greatness.” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 83, Iss. 7/8, pp. 74-83.Google Scholar
  72. Reina, D., and Reina, M. (2007). “Rebuilding Trust: The Leader’s Role.” Leadership Excellence, Vol. 24, Iss. 2, pp. 17-18.Google Scholar
  73. Ren, H., and Gray, B., (2009). “Repairing Relationship Conflict: How Violation Types and Culture Influence the Effectiveness of Restoration Rituals.” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 34, Iss. 1, pp. 105-126.Google Scholar
  74. Roberts, R. G., (2007). “The Art of Apology: When and How to Seek Forgiveness.” Family Practice Management, Vol. 14, Iss. 7, pp. 44-50.Google Scholar
  75. Rousseau, D. M., (1995.) Psychological Contracts in Organizations – Understanding Written and Unwritten Agreement, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.Google Scholar
  76. Rousseau, D. M., and Rivero, A., (2003). “Extending the Psychology of the Psychological Contract: A Reply to “Putting Psychology Back into Psychological Contracts.” Journal of Management Inquiry, Vol. 12, Iss. 2, pp. 115-134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rybach, D., (1998). Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work: Successful Leadership is More than IQ. Woburn, MA: Butterworh-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  78. Schein, E. H., (2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  79. Schoorman, F. D., Mayer, R. C., and Davis, J. H., (2007). “An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust: Past, Present, and Future.” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 32, Iss. 2, pp. 344-354.Google Scholar
  80. Senge, P. M., (2006) The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  81. Sitkin and Pablo, (1992). “Reconceptualizing the Determinants of Risk Behavior.” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 17, pp. 9-38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Smedes, L. B., (1996). The Art of Forgiving: When You Need to Forgive and Don’t Know How. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  83. Solomon, R.C., and Flores, F., (2003). Building Trust: In Business, Politics, Relationships, and Life. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Staub, R. E. II, (2002). The Heart of Leadership: 12 Practices of Courageous Leaders. Greensboro, NC: Staub Leadership Consultants.Google Scholar
  85. Steinbrecher, S., and Bennett, J. B., (2003). Heart-Centered Leadership: An Invitation to Lead from the Inside Out. Memphis, TN: Black Pants Publishing.Google Scholar
  86. Townsend, P. L.: 1982, ‹Love and Leadership’, Marine Corps Gazette, February, p. 24Google Scholar
  87. Tripp, T. M., Bies, R. J., and Aquino, K., (2002). “Poetic Justice or Petty Jealousy? The Aesthetics of Revenge.” Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes. Vol. 89, Iss. 1, pp. 966-984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Weisinger, H., (1998). Emotional Intelligence at Work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  89. Williams, T. A., (2004). “Lead by Love.” Quality Magazine, Vol. 43, Iss. 1, p. 8.Google Scholar
  90. Wilson, S. M. and S. R. Ferch: 2005, ‹Enhancing Resilience in the Workplace Through the Practice of Caring Relationships’, Organization Development Journal 23(4), 45–60Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Professor of Management and Chair of the Business Department at Paul Quinn CollegeDallasU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations