Table 6 Univariate analysis according to consensus radiologist assessment

From: Diagnostic value of radiomics and machine learning with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for patients with atypical ductal hyperplasia in predicting malignant upgrade

Imaging feature Upgrade status p-value
Overall No-upgrade Upgrade
BPE     0.11
 Minimal 21 (15) 17 (15) 4 (14)  
 Mild 56 (40) 47 (42) 9 (32)  
 Moderate 51 (37) 36 (32) 15 (54)  
 Marked 11 (7.9) 11 (9.9) 0 (0)  
FGT     0.7
 Almost entirely fat 1 (0.7) 1 (0.9) 0 (0)  
 Scattered FGT 37 (27) 28 (25) 9 (32)  
 Heterogeneous FGT 89 (64) 71 (64) 18 (64)  
 Extreme FGT 12 (8.6) 11 (9.9) 1 (3.6)  
Depth      > 0.9
 Anterior 36 (26) 28 (25) 8 (29)  
 Middle 72 (52) 58 (52) 14 (50)  
 Posterior 31 (22) 25 (23) 6 (21)  
T2 signal intensity     0.2
 Hypointense 1 (0.7) 0 (0) 1 (3.6)  
 Isointense 111 (80) 88 (79) 23 (82)  
 Hyperintense 27 (19) 23 (21) 4 (14)  
DWI signal (75 lesions)     0.6
 Homogeneous 27 (36) 23 (40) 4 (24)  
 Heterogeneous 7 (9.3) 5 (8.6) 2 (12)  
 Rim 1 (1.3) 1 (1.7) 0 (0)  
 No correlate 40 (53) 29 (50) 11 (65)  
ADC signal (61 lesions)     0.6
 Hyperintense 3 (4.9) 3 (6.4) 0 (0)  
 Hypointense 9 (15) 6 (13) 3 (21)  
 No correlate 49 (80) 38 (81) 11 (79)  
BI-RADS     0.7
 3 10 (7.2) 9 (8.1) 1 (3.6)  
 4 129 (93) 102 (92) 27 (96)  
Enhancement type     0.6
 Mass like 71 (51) 59 (53) 12 (43)  
 Non-mass like 66 (47) 50 (45) 16 (57)  
 Mixed 2 (1.4) 2 (1.8) 0 (0)  
Shape (mass)     0.12
 Oval 16 (22) 16 (26) 0 (0)  
 Round 16 (22) 12 (20) 4 (33)  
 Irregular 41 (56) 33 (54) 8 (67)  
Margins (mass)     0.6
 Circumscribed 34 (47) 30 (49) 4 (33)  
 Irregular 32 (44) 25 (41) 7 (58)  
 Spiculated 7 (9) 6 (10) 1 (8.3)  
Enhancement (mass)     0.5
 Homogeneous 33 (45) 29 (47) 4 (33)  
 Heterogeneous 37 (50) 30 (48) 7 (58)  
 Rim enhancement 3 (4.1) 2 (3.2) 1 (9)  
 Dark internal septation 1 (1.4) 1 (1.6) 0 (0)  
Distribution (non-mass)     0.2
 Focal 25 (37) 22 (42) 3 (19)  
 Linear 23 (34) 18 (35) 5 (31)  
 Segmental 18 (26) 11 (21) 7 (44)  
 Regional 2 (2.9) 1 (1.9) 1 (6.2)  
 Multiple regions 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Diffuse 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Enhancement (non-mass)     0.9
 Homogeneous 10 (15) 7 (13) 3 (19)  
 Heterogeneous 36 (53) 28 (54) 8 (50)  
 Clumped 22 (32) 17 (33) 5 (31)  
 Clustered rings 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
DCE (kinetics)*     0.2
 Progressive 54 (40) 47 (44) 7 (25)  
 Plateau 63 (47) 47 (44) 16 (57)  
  1. ADC apparent diffusion coefficient, BI-RADS breast imaging-reporting & data system, BPE background parenchymal enhancement, DCE dynamic contrast-enhanced, DWI diffusion-weighted imaging, FGT fibroglandular tissue
  2. *Kinetic analysis was performed only by R1