Physical activity and mammographic breast density: a systematic review
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Studies show a protective relationship between physical activity and breast cancer risk across the life course from menarche to postmenopausal years. Mammographic breast density is a known and strong breast cancer risk factor. Whether the association of physical activity with breast cancer risk is mediated through mammographic breast density is poorly understood. This systematic review summarizes published studies that investigated the association between physical activity and mammographic breast density and discusses the methodological issues that need to be addressed. We included in this review studies that were published before October 31, 2011 that were accessible in full-text format and were published in English. We identified 20 studies through the PubMed Central, BioMed Central, Embase, and Scopus and using the search terms “physical activity and breast density” and “exercise and breast density” as well as through manual searches of the bibliographies of the articles identified in electronic searches. We found no evidence of association between physical activity and breast density across the studies by grouping them first by the timing of physical activity assessment (in adolescence, current/recent, past, and lifetime) and then by women’s menopausal status (premenopausal and postmenopausal). Given the strength of the relationship between physical activity and breast cancer and the null findings of this review, it is unlikely that the effect of physical activity is mediated through an effect on breast density.
KeywordsBreast density Physical activity Exercise Breast cancer risk
Dr. Graham Colditz is supported by American Cancer Society’s Clinical Research Professorship and U54 CA155496 from the National Cancer Institute’s Centers for Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC). Dr. Kathleen Wolin is supported by grants RO1CA 148791 and U54 CA155496 from the National Cancer Institute and the Barnes Jewish Hospital Foundation. Dr. Yaghjyan is supported by Barnes Jewish Hospital Foundation.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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