Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 135, Issue 2, pp 367–380 | Cite as

Physical activity and mammographic breast density: a systematic review

  • Lusine Yaghjyan
  • Graham A. Colditz
  • Kathleen Wolin


Studies show a protective relationship between physical activity and breast cancer risk across the life course from menarche to postmenopausal years. Mammographic breast density is a known and strong breast cancer risk factor. Whether the association of physical activity with breast cancer risk is mediated through mammographic breast density is poorly understood. This systematic review summarizes published studies that investigated the association between physical activity and mammographic breast density and discusses the methodological issues that need to be addressed. We included in this review studies that were published before October 31, 2011 that were accessible in full-text format and were published in English. We identified 20 studies through the PubMed Central, BioMed Central, Embase, and Scopus and using the search terms “physical activity and breast density” and “exercise and breast density” as well as through manual searches of the bibliographies of the articles identified in electronic searches. We found no evidence of association between physical activity and breast density across the studies by grouping them first by the timing of physical activity assessment (in adolescence, current/recent, past, and lifetime) and then by women’s menopausal status (premenopausal and postmenopausal). Given the strength of the relationship between physical activity and breast cancer and the null findings of this review, it is unlikely that the effect of physical activity is mediated through an effect on breast density.


Breast density Physical activity Exercise Breast cancer risk 



Dr. Graham Colditz is supported by American Cancer Society’s Clinical Research Professorship and U54 CA155496 from the National Cancer Institute’s Centers for Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC). Dr. Kathleen Wolin is supported by grants RO1CA 148791 and U54 CA155496 from the National Cancer Institute and the Barnes Jewish Hospital Foundation. Dr. Yaghjyan is supported by Barnes Jewish Hospital Foundation.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

10549_2012_2152_MOESM1_ESM.doc (34 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 43 kb)
10549_2012_2152_MOESM2_ESM.doc (33 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 43 kb)
10549_2012_2152_MOESM3_ESM.doc (46 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOC 77 kb)
10549_2012_2152_MOESM4_ESM.doc (30 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (DOC 32 kb)
10549_2012_2152_MOESM5_ESM.doc (42 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (DOC 59 kb)
10549_2012_2152_MOESM6_ESM.doc (42 kb)
Supplementary material 6 (DOC 58 kb)


  1. 1.
    Boyd NF, Rommens JM, Vogt K, Lee V, Hopper JL, Yaffe MJ, Paterson AD (2005) Mammographic breast density as an intermediate phenotype for breast cancer. Lancet Oncol 6(10):798–808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ginsburg OM, Martin LJ, Boyd NF (2008) Mammographic density, lobular involution, and risk of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 99(9):1369–1374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tamimi RM, Byrne C, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE (2007) Endogenous hormone levels, mammographic density, and subsequent risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 99(15):1178–1187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Harvey JA, Bovbjerg VE (2004) Quantitative assessment of mammographic breast density: relationship with breast cancer risk. Radiology 230(1):29–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boyd NF, Byng JW, Jong RA, Fishell EK, Little LE, Miller AB, Lockwood GA, Tritchler DL, Yaffe MJ (1995) Quantitative classification of mammographic densities and breast cancer risk: results from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 87(9):670–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Byrne C, Schairer C, Wolfe J, Parekh N, Salane M, Brinton LA, Hoover R, Haile R (1995) Mammographic features and breast cancer risk: effects with time, age, and menopause status. J Natl Cancer Inst 87(21):1622–1629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boyd NF, Guo H, Martin LJ, Sun L, Stone J, Fishell E, Jong RA, Hislop G, Chiarelli A, Minkin S, Yaffe MJ (2007) Mammographic density and the risk and detection of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 356(3):227–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li T, Sun L, Miller N, Nicklee T, Woo J, Hulse-Smith L, Tsao MS, Khokha R, Martin L, Boyd N (2005) The association of measured breast tissue characteristics with mammographic density and other risk factors for breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14(2):343–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Conner P, Svane G, Azavedo E, Soderqvist G, Carlstrom K, Graser T, Walter F, von Schoultz B (2004) Mammographic breast density, hormones, and growth factors during continuous combined hormone therapy. Fertil Steril 81(6):1617–1623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marchesoni D, Driul L, Ianni A, Fabiani G, Della Martina M, Zuiani C, Bazzocchi M (2006) Postmenopausal hormone therapy and mammographic breast density. Maturitas 53(1):59–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Martin LJ, Minkin S, Boyd NF (2009) Hormone therapy, mammographic density, and breast cancer risk. Maturitas 64(1):20–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rutter CM, Mandelson MT, Laya MB, Seger DJ, Taplin S (2001) Changes in breast density associated with initiation, discontinuation, and continuing use of hormone replacement therapy. JAMA 285(2):171–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brisson J, Brisson B, Coté G, Maunsell E, Bérubé S, Robert J (2000) Tamoxifen and mammographic breast densities. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 9(9):911–915Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cuzick J, Warwick J, Pinney E, Duffy SW, Cawthorn S, Howell A, Forbes JF, Warren RM (2011) Tamoxifen-induced reduction in mammographic density and breast cancer risk reduction: a nested case–control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 103(9):744–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vachon CM, Pankratz VS, Scott CG, Maloney SD, Ghosh K, Brandt KR, Milanese T, Carston MJ, Sellers TA (2007) Longitudinal trends in mammographic percent density and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16(5):921–928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    AIRC (2007) Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Friedenreich CM (2011) Physical activity and breast cancer: review of the epidemiologic evidence and biologic mechanisms. Recent Results Cancer Res 188:125–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mora S, Lee I-M, Buring JE, Ridker PM (2006) Association of physical activity and body mass index with novel and traditional cardiovascular biomarkers in women. JAMA 295(12):1412–1419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lopez P, Van Horn L, Colangelo LA, Wolfman JA, Hendrick RE, Gapstur SM (2003) Physical inactivity and percent breast density among Hispanic women. Int J Cancer 107(6):1012–1016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sala E, Warren R, McCann J, Duffy S, Luben R, Day N (2000) High-risk mammographic parenchymal patterns, hormone replacement therapy and other risk factors: a case–control study. Int J Epidemiol 29(4):629–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Marmara EA, Papacharalambous XN, Kouloulias VE, Maridaki DM, Baltopoulos JP (2011) Physical activity and mammographic parenchymal patterns among Greek postmenopausal women. Maturitas 69(1):74–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Laird NM, Mosteller F (1990) Some statistical methods for combining experimental results. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 6(1):5–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Woolcott CG, Courneya KS, Boyd NF, Yaffe MJ, Terry T, McTiernan A, Brant R, Ballard-Barbash R, Irwin ML, Jones CA, Brar S, Campbell KL, McNeely ML, Karvinen KH, Friedenreich CM (2010) Mammographic density change with 1 year of aerobic exercise among postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19(4):1112–1121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Saffer H, Dave DM, Grossman M (2011) Racial, ethnic and gender differences in physical activity. 17413, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, NBER Working PapersGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Matthews CE, Hebert JR, Freedson PS, Stanek EJ III, Merriam PA, Ebbeling CB, Ockene IS (2001) Sources of variance in daily physical activity levels in the seasonal variation of blood cholesterol study. Am J Epidemiol 153(10):987–995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Greene BL, Haldeman GF, Kaminski A, Neal K, Lim SS, Conn DL (2006) Factors affecting physical activity behavior in urban adults with arthritis who are predominantly African-American and female. Phys Ther 86(4):510–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Peters TM, Ekelund U, Leitzmann M, Easton D, Warren R, Luben R, Bingham S, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ (2008) Physical activity and mammographic breast density in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study. Am J Epidemiol 167(5):579–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Oestreicher N, Capra A, Bromberger J, Butler LM, Crandall CJ, Gold EB, Greendale GA, Modugno F, Sternfeld B, Habel LA (2008) Physical activity and mammographic density in a cohort of midlife women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40(3):451–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sellers TA, Vachon CM, Pankratz VS, Janney CA, Fredericksen Z, Brandt KR, Huang Y, Couch FJ, Kushi LH, Cerhan JR (2007) Association of childhood and adolescent anthropometric factors, physical activity, and diet with adult mammographic breast density. Am J Epidemiol 166(4):456–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Conroy SM, Butler LM, Harvey D, Gold EB, Sternfeld B, Oestreicher N, Greendale GA, Habel LA (2010) Physical activity and change in mammographic density: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Am J Epidemiol 171(9):960–968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gram IT, Funkhouser E, Tabar L (1999) Moderate physical activity in relation to mammographic patterns. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8(2):117–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Prince SA, Adamo KB, Hamel ME, Hardt J, Gorber SC, Tremblay M (2008) A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 5:56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    El-Bastawissi AY, White E, Mandelson MT, Taplin S (2001) Variation in mammographic breast density by race. Ann Epidemiol 11(4):257–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cuzick J, Warwick J, Pinney E, Warren RML, Duffy SW (2004) Tamoxifen and breast density in women at increased risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 96(8):621–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Konez O, Goyal M, Reaven RE (2001) Can tamoxifen cause a significant mammographic density change in breast parenchyma? Clin Imaging 25(5):303–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ozturk T, Oktay A, Bilgen I, Izmir T (2011) Effect of tamoxifen on breast density in breast cancer patients. Paper presented at the Europena Congress of Radiology, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gao J, Forbes J, Warren R, Cuzick J, Howell A, D’Este C, Warren-Forward H (2006) Change in mammographic density after cessation of tamoxifen: results from international breast cancer intervention study I (IBIS I). In: SABCS 2006—San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium San Antonio, USAGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ghosh K, Hartmann LC, Reynolds C, Visscher DW, Brandt KR, Vierkant RA, Scott CG, Radisky DC, Sellers TA, Pankratz VS, Vachon CM (2010) Association between mammographic density and age-related lobular involution of the breast. J Clin Oncol 28(13):2207–2212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kerlikowske K, Cook AJ, Buist DS, Cummings SR, Vachon C, Vacek P, Miglioretti DL (2010) Breast cancer risk by breast density, menopause, and postmenopausal hormone therapy use. J Clin Oncol 28(24):3830–3837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Talley LI, Grizzle WE, Waterbor JW, Brown D, Weiss H, Frost AR (2002) Hormone receptors and proliferation in breast carcinomas of equivalent histologic grades in pre- and postmenopausal women. Int J Cancer 98(1):118–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Misell L, Hwang E, Au A, Esserman L, Hellerstein M (2005) Development of a novel method for measuring in vivo breast epithelial cell proliferation in humans. Breast Cancer Res Treat 89(3):257–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhu BTCA (1998) Functional role of estrogen metabolism in target cells: review and perspectives. Carcinogenesis 19:1–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Guillemette C, Belanger A, Lepine J (2004) Metabolic inactivation of estrogens in breast tissue by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes: an overview. Breast Cancer Res 6(6):246–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Clemons M, Goss P (2001) Estrogen and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 344(4):276–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ursin G, Parisky YR, Pike MC, Spicer DV (2001) Mammographic density changes during the menstrual cycle. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10(2):141–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    White E, Velentgas P, Mandelson MT, Lehman CD, Elmore JG, Porter P, Yasui Y, Taplin SH (1998) Variation in mammographic breast density by time in menstrual cycle among women aged 40–49 years. J Natl Cancer Inst 90(12):906–910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gapstur SM, Lopez P, Colangelo LA, Wolfman J, Van Horn L, Hendrick RE (2003) Associations of breast cancer risk factors with breast density in Hispanic women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12(10):1074–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Vachon CM, Sellers TA, Vierkant RA, Wu FF, Brandt KR (2002) Case–control study of increased mammographic breast density response to hormone replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11(11):1382–1388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    El-Bastawissi AY, White E, Mandelson MT, Taplin SH (2000) Reproductive and hormonal factors associated with mammographic breast density by age (United States). Cancer Causes Control 11(10):955–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Harvey J, Scheurer C, Kawakami FT, Quebe-Fehling E, de Palacios PI, Ragavan VV (2005) Hormone replacement therapy and breast density changes. Climacteric 8(2):185–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Persson I, Thurfjell E, Holmberg L (1997) Effect of estrogen and estrogen–progestin replacement regimens on mammographic breast parenchymal density. J Clin Oncol 15(10):3201–3207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Topal NB, Ayhan S, Topal U, Bilgin T (2006) Effects of hormone replacement therapy regimens on mammographic breast density: the role of progestins. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 32(3):305–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Aiello EJ, Buist DS, White E (2006) Do breast cancer risk factors modify the association between hormone therapy and mammographic breast density? (United States). Cancer Causes Control 17(10):1227–1235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pettersen PC, Raundahl J, Loog M, Nielsen M, Tanko LB, Christiansen C (2008) Parallel assessment of the impact of different hormone replacement therapies on breast density by radiologist- and computer-based analyses of mammograms. Climacteric 11(2):135–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sterns EE, Zee B (2000) Mammographic density changes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: is effect of hormone replacement therapy predictable? Breast Cancer Res Treat 59(2):125–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Erel CT, Esen G, Seyisoglu H, Elter K, Uras C, Ertungealp E, Aksu MF (2001) Mammographic density increase in women receiving different hormone replacement regimens. Maturitas 40(2):151–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Colacurci N, Fornaro F, De Franciscis P, Palermo M, del Vecchio W (2001) Effects of different types of hormone replacement therapy on mammographic density. Maturitas 40(2):159–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Titus-Ernstoff L, Tosteson AN, Kasales C, Weiss J, Goodrich M, Hatch EE, Carney PA (2006) Breast cancer risk factors in relation to breast density (United States). Cancer Causes Control 17(10):1281–1290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stuedal A (2009) Postmenopausal hormone therapy with estradiol and norethisterone acetate and mammographic density: findings from a cross-sectional study among Norwegian women. Climacteric 12(3):248–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Irwin M, Aiello E, McTiernan A, Baumgartner R, Baumgartner K, Bernstein L, Gilliland F, Ballard-Barbash R (2006) Pre-diagnosis physical activity and mammographic density in breast cancer survivors. Breast Cancer Res Treat 95(2):171–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Warwick J, Pinney E, Warren RM, Duffy SW, Howell A, Wilson M, Cuzick J (2003) Breast density and breast cancer risk factors in a high-risk population. Breast 12(1):10–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Vachon CM, Kuni CC, Anderson K, Anderson VE, Sellers TA (2000) Association of mammographically defined percent breast density with epidemiologic risk factors for breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 11(7):653–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Vachon CM, Sellers TA, Janney CA, Brandt KR, Carlson EE, Pankratz VS, Wu FF, Therneau TM, Cerhan JR (2005) Alcohol intake in adolescence and mammographic density. Int J Cancer 117(5):837–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Maskarinec G, Takata Y, Pagano I, Lurie G, Wilkens LR, Kolonel LN (2006) Alcohol consumption and mammographic density in a multiethnic population. Int J Cancer 118(10):2579–2583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gram IT, Funkhouser E, Tabar L (1995) Reproductive and menstrual factors in relation to mammographic parenchymal patterns among perimenopausal women. Br J Cancer 71(3):647–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kelemen LE, Pankratz VS, Sellers TA, Brandt KR, Wang A, Janney C, Fredericksen ZS, Cerhan JR, Vachon CM (2008) Age-specific trends in mammographic density: the Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study. Am J Epidemiol 167(9):1027–1036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Modugno F, Ngo DL, Allen GO, Kuller LH, Ness RB, Vogel VG, Costantino JP, Cauley JA (2006) Breast cancer risk factors and mammographic breast density in women over age 70. Breast Cancer Res Treat 97(2):157–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sala E, Warren R, McCann J, Duffy S, Luben R, Day N (1999) High-risk mammographic parenchymal patterns and anthropometric measures: a case–control study. Br J Cancer 81(7):1257–1261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lam PB, Vacek PM, Geller BM, Muss HB (2000) The association of increased weight, body mass index, and tissue density with the risk of breast carcinoma in Vermont. Cancer 89(2):369–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Noh JJ, Maskarinec G, Pagano I, Cheung LW, Stanczyk FZ (2006) Mammographic densities and circulating hormones: a cross-sectional study in premenopausal women. Breast 15(1):20–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Johansson H, Gandini S, Bonanni B, Mariette F, Guerrieri-Gonzaga A, Serrano D, Cassano E, Ramazzotto F, Baglietto L, Sandri M, Decensi A (2008) Relationships between circulating hormone levels, mammographic percent density and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 108(1):57–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chaput J-P, Klingenberg L, Rosenkilde M, Gilbert J-A, Tremblay A, Sjordin A (2011) Physical activity plays an important role in body weight regulation. J Obes 2011:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Masala G, Assedi M, Ambrogetti D, Sera F, Salvini S, Bendinelli B, Ermini I, Giorgi D, Rosselli del Turco M, Palli D (2009) Physical activity and mammographic breast density in a Mediterranean population: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study. Int J Cancer 124(7):1654–1661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jeffreys M, Warren R, Gunnell D, McCarron P, Smith GD (2004) Life course breast cancer risk factors and adult breast density (United Kingdom). Cancer Causes Control 15(9):947–955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Suijkerbuijk KPM, Van Duijnhoven FJB, Van Gils CH, Van Noord PAH, Peeters PHM, Friedenreich CM, Monninkhof EM (2006) Physical activity in relation to mammographic density in the Dutch prospect-European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 15(3):456–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Siozon CC, Ma H, Hilsen M, Bernstein L, Ursin G (2006) The association between recreational physical activity and mammographic density. Int J Cancer 119(7):1695–1701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Reeves KW, Gierach GL, Modugno F (2007) Recreational physical activity and mammographic breast density characteristics. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16(5):934–942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wolin KY, Colangelo LA, Chiu BC, Ainsworth B, Chatterton R, Gapstur SM (2007) Associations of physical activity, sedentary time, and insulin with percent breast density in Hispanic women. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 16(7):1004–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Irwin ML, Aiello EJ, McTiernan A, Bernstein L, Gilliland FD, Baumgartner RN, Baumgartner KB, Ballard-Barbash R (2007) Physical activity, body mass index, and mammographic density in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol 25(9):1061–1066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Samimi G, Colditz GA, Baer HJ, Tamimi RM (2008) Measures of energy balance and mammographic density in the Nurses’ Health Study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 109(1):113–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tseng M, Olufade TO, Evers KA, Byrne C (2011) Adolescent lifestyle factors and adult breast density in U.S. Chinese immigrant women. Nutr Cancer 63(3):342–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lusine Yaghjyan
    • 1
  • Graham A. Colditz
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kathleen Wolin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of Public Health SciencesWashington University in St. Louis School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Public HealthWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  3. 3.Alvin J Siteman Cancer CenterSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations