Advertisement

Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 123, Supplement 1, pp 15–18 | Cite as

Histologic diagnosis in young women with breast cancer

  • Francisco Javier Andreu
Brief Report

Introduction

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous group of tumors with similar diagnostic, but different prognostic profiles that can be subdivided on the basis of histopathological features, genetic alterations, and gene-expression profiles. The World Health Organization has defined a wide range of histopathological subtypes of invasive breast cancer and classified these carcinomas into 19 categories, most of which are quite rare [1]. This classification into tumor subtypes is based on histopathological characteristics, and reflects differences in biological behavior and, in general lines, different outcomes. However, the main criticism to this classification is that >80% of the tumor subtypes is infiltrating ductal carcinomas not otherwise specified. For this reason, histologic grading systems, which do have prognostic value, have been elaborated.

Using an intrinsic set of 534 genes, Sorlie et al. [2] analyzed the expression profiles of 115 independent breast tumor samples and...

Keywords

Breast Cancer Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Estrogen Receptor Luminal Trastuzumab 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the support of Pfizer Spain, which facilitated the necessary meetings to evaluate and discuss all the data presented in this review, and Dr. Fernando Sánchez-Barbero from HealthCo SL (Madrid, Spain) for assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.

Conflict of Interest

The author has no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Tavassoli FA, Devilee P (2003) World Health Organization of tumours. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the breast and female genital organs. IARC Press, LyonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sorlie T, Tibshirani R, Parker J, Hastie T, Marron JS, Nobel A et al (2003) Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data sets. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(14):8418–8423CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Usary J, Llaca V, Karaca G, Presswala S, Karaca M, He X et al (2004) Mutation of GATA3 in human breast tumors. Oncogene 23(46):7669–7678CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Finlin BS, Gau CL, Murphy GA, Shao H, Kimel T, Seitz RS et al (2001) RERG is a novel ras-related, estrogen-regulated and growth-inhibitory gene in breast cancer. J Biol Chem 276(45):42259–42267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sorlie T, Perou CM, Tibshirani R, Aas T, Geisler S, Johnsen H et al (2001) Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(19):10869–10874CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Perou CM, Jeffrey SS, van de Rijn M, Rees CA, Eisen MB, Ross DT et al (1999) Distinctive gene expression patterns in human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96(16):9212–9217CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    de Azambuja E, Cardoso F, de Castro G Jr, Colozza M, Mano MS, Durbecq V et al (2007) Ki-67 as prognostic marker in early breast cancer: a meta-analysis of published studies involving 12,155 patients. Br J Cancer 96(10):1504–1513CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cheang MC, Chia SK, Voduc D, Gao D, Leung S, Snider J et al (2009) Ki67 index, HER2 status, and prognosis of patients with luminal B breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 101(10):736–750CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cheang MC, Voduc D, Bajdik C, Leung S, McKinney S, Chia SK et al (2008) Basal-like breast cancer defined by five biomarkers has superior prognostic value than triple-negative phenotype. Clin Cancer Res 14(5):1368–1376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Perou CM, Sorlie T, Eisen MB, van de Rijn M, Jeffrey SS, Rees CA et al (2000) Molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature 406(6797):747–752CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lin CH, Liau JY, Lu YS, Huang CS, Lee WC, Kuo KT et al (2009) Molecular subtypes of breast cancer emerging in young women in Taiwan: evidence for more than just westernization as a reason for the disease in Asia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18(6):1807–1814CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ihemelandu CU, Leffall LD Jr, Dewitty RL, Naab TJ, Mezghebe HM, Makambi KH et al (2007) Molecular breast cancer subtypes in premenopausal African-American women, tumor biologic factors and clinical outcome. Ann Surg Oncol 14(10):2994–3003CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sotiriou C, Neo SY, McShane LM, Korn EL, Long PM, Jazaeri A et al (2003) Breast cancer classification and prognosis based on gene expression profiles from a population-based study. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(18):10393–10398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nielsen TO, Hsu FD, Jensen K, Cheang M, Karaca G, Hu Z et al (2004) Immunohistochemical and clinical characterization of the basal-like subtype of invasive breast carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 10(16):5367–5374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Slamon DJ, Leyland-Jones B, Shak S, Fuchs H, Paton V, Bajamonde A et al (2001) Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med 344(11):783–792CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bauer KR, Brown M, Cress RD, Parise CA, Caggiano V (2007) Descriptive analysis of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative invasive breast cancer, the so-called triple-negative phenotype: a population-based study from the California Cancer Registry. Cancer 109(9):1721–1728CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim MJ, Ro JY, Ahn SH, Kim HH, Kim SB, Gong G (2006) Clinicopathologic significance of the basal-like subtype of breast cancer: a comparison with hormone receptor and Her2/neu-overexpressing phenotypes. Hum Pathol 37(9):1217–1226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Korsching E, Packeisen J, Agelopoulos K, Eisenacher M, Voss R, Isola J et al (2002) Cytogenetic alterations and cytokeratin expression patterns in breast cancer: integrating a new model of breast differentiation into cytogenetic pathways of breast carcinogenesis. Lab Invest 82(11):1525–1533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Foulkes WD, Stefansson IM, Chappuis PO, Begin LR, Goffin JR, Wong N et al (2003) Germline BRCA1 mutations and a basal epithelial phenotype in breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 95(19):1482–1485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Honrado E, Benitez J, Palacios J (2005) The molecular pathology of hereditary breast cancer: genetic testing and therapeutic implications. Mod Pathol 18(10):1305–1320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium (1997) Pathology of familial breast cancer: differences between breast cancers in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and sporadic cases. Lancet 349(9064):1505–1510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grushko TA, Blackwood MA, Schumm PL, Hagos FG, Adeyanju MO, Feldman MD et al (2002) Molecular-cytogenetic analysis of HER-2/neu gene in BRCA1-associated breast cancers. Cancer Res 62(5):1481–1488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Robson ME, Chappuis PO, Satagopan J, Wong N, Boyd J, Goffin JR et al (2004) A combined analysis of outcome following breast cancer: differences in survival based on BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation status and administration of adjuvant treatment. Breast Cancer Res 6(1):R8–R17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kennedy RD, Quinn JE, Johnston PG, Harkin DP (2002) BRCA1: mechanisms of inactivation and implications for management of patients. Lancet 360(9338):1007–1014CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology, UDIAT Centre DiagnòsticCorporació Sanitària Parc TaulíSabadell, BarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations