Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 127, Issue 3, pp 623–630 | Cite as

Elevated TRF2 in advanced breast cancers with short telomeres

  • Malissa C. Diehl
  • Michael O. Idowu
  • Katherine N. Kimmelshue
  • Timothy P. York
  • Colleen K. Jackson-Cook
  • Kristi C. Turner
  • Shawn E. Holt
  • Lynne W. Elmore
Preclinical study


Telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) binds directly to telomeres and preserves the structural integrity of chromosome ends. In vitro models suggest that expression of TRF2 protein increases during mammary cancer progression. However, a recent study has reported that TRF2 mRNA levels tend to be lower in clinical specimens of malignant breast tissue. Here, we conduct the first large-scale investigation to assess the levels and cellular localization of the TRF2 protein in normal, pre-malignant and malignant breast tissues. Breast tissue arrays, containing normal, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive carcinoma specimens, were used to assess the expression and localization of TRF2 protein. Telomere lengths were semi-quantitatively measured using a pantelomeric peptide nucleic acid probe. A mixed effects modeling approach was used to assess the relationship between TRF2 expression and telomeric signal scores across disease states or clinical staging. We demonstrate that TRF2 is exclusively nuclear with a trend toward lower expression with increased malignancy. More case-to-case variability of TRF2 immunostaining intensity was noted amongst the invasive carcinomas than the other disease groups. Invasive carcinomas also displayed variable telomere lengths while telomeres in normal mammary epithelium were generally longer. Statistical analyses revealed that increased TRF2 immunostaining intensity in invasive carcinomas is associated with shorter telomeres and shorter telomeres correlate with a higher TNM stage. All immortalized and cancer cell lines within the array displayed strong, nuclear TRF2 expression. Our data indicate that elevated expression of TRF2 is not a frequent occurrence during the transformation of breast cancer cells in vivo, but higher levels of this telomere-binding protein may be important for protecting advanced cancer cells with critically short telomeres. Our findings also reinforce the concept that serially propagated cancer cells, although tumor-derived, may not model all types of authentic tumors especially those demonstrating genetic heterogeneity.


TRF2 Breast cancer Cancer progression Telomere length DCIS TNM 



We thank the Anatomic Pathology Research Services at Virginia Commonwealth University for providing anonymized breast tissues for antibody optimization and for use of their Nikon microscopic workstation. This study was supported by a National Institutes of Health KO1 CA105050-01A131 (to LWE). It was also funded, in part, by a grant (CJC) from the National Institute of Environmental Health (R01 ES12074). Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malissa C. Diehl
    • 1
  • Michael O. Idowu
    • 2
  • Katherine N. Kimmelshue
    • 2
  • Timothy P. York
    • 1
    • 3
  • Colleen K. Jackson-Cook
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Kristi C. Turner
    • 2
  • Shawn E. Holt
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Lynne W. Elmore
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Human and Molecular GeneticsVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  3. 3.Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral GeneticsVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  4. 4.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  5. 5.Massey Cancer CenterVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

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