Advertisement

Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 113, Issue 1, pp 163–172 | Cite as

Effect of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate dietary intervention on change in mammographic density over menopause

  • Lisa J. Martin
  • Carolyn V. Greenberg
  • Valentina Kriukov
  • Salomon Minkin
  • David J. A. Jenkins
  • Martin Yaffe
  • Gregory Hislop
  • Norman F. Boyd
Epidemiology

Abstract

We have previously shown that a low-fat dietary intervention for 2 years in women with extensive mammographic density decreased mammographic density to a greater extent than in the control group. Post-hoc analysis indicated that this effect was strongest in women who became postmenopausal during the follow-up period. The purpose of the present study was to determine if this potentially important finding could be confirmed in a new and larger group of subjects with a longer follow-up time. Participants in a low-fat dietary intervention trial who were premenopausal at entry and became postmenopausal during follow-up were examined. Total breast, dense, and non-dense area and percent density were measured in baseline and postmenopause mammograms using a computer-assisted method. Total breast and non dense area increased more in the control group compared to the intervention group (for breast area 2.6 and 0.2 cm2, respectively; P = 0.05, and for non-dense area 10.9 and 8.1 cm2, respectively; P = 0.06). Dense area decreased to a similar degree in both groups (−8.2 and −8.0 cm2, respectively; P = 0.84). Percent density decreased to a slightly greater degree in the control compared to intervention group (−9.4 and −7.8%, respectively, = 0.11). There were no significant differences between study groups after adjustment for weight change. Menopause reduced density to a similar extent in the low-fat diet and control groups. If a low-fat diet reduces breast cancer risk, the effect is unlikely to be through changes in mammographic density at menopause.

Keywords

Breast cancer Dietary fat Low-fat diet Mammographic density Menopause 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the highly skilled staff of the Diet and Breast Cancer Prevention Study for their effort in carrying out the intervention study and collecting the data. We are also indebted to the dedicated study participants. Supported by grants from the Ontario Ministry of Health, the Canadian Breast Cancer Research Alliance and the American Institute for Cancer Research, and by a Postdoctoral Fellowship from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (LJM).

References

  1. 1.
    Prentice RL, Sheppard L (1990) Dietary fat and cancer: consistency of the epidemiologic data, and disease prevention that may follow from a practical reduction in fat consumption. Cancer Causes Control 1:81–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Freedman LS, Clifford C, Messina M (1990) Analysis of dietary fat, calories, body weight and the development of mammary tumours in rats and mice: a review. Cancer Res 50:5710–5719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hunter DJ, Willett WC (1993) Diet, body size, and breast cancer. Epidemiol Rev 15:110–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boyd NF, Stone J, Vogt KN et al (2003) Dietary fat and breast cancer risk revisited: a meta-analysis of the published literature. Br J Cancer 89:1672–1685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bingham SA, Luben R, Welch A et al (2003) Are imprecise methods obscuring a relation between fat and breast cancer? Lancet 362:212–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Freedman LS, Potischman N, Kipnis V et al (2006) A comparison of two dietary instruments for evaluating the fat-breast cancer relationship. Int J Epidemiol 35:1011–1021PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prentice RL, Cann B, Chlebowski RT et al (2006) Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of invasive breast cancer: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA 295:629–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boyd NF, Lockwood GA, Byng J et al (1998) Mammographic densities and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7:1133–1144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Greendale GA, Reboussin BA, Slone S et al (2003) Postmenopausal hormone therapy and change in mammographic density. J Natl Cancer Inst 95:30–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cuzick J, Warwick J, Pinney E et al (2004) Tamoxifen and breast density in women at increased risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 96:621–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boyd NF, Martin LJ, Stone J et al (2001) Mammographic densities as a marker of human breast cancer risk and their use in chemoprevention. Curr Oncol Rep 3:314–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boyd NF, Greenberg C, Lockwood G et al (1997) Effects at two years of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on radiologic features of the breast: results from a randomized trial. Canadian Diet and Breast Cancer Prevention Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 89:488–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Muir C, Waterhouse T, Mack J, Powell S, Whelan S (1992). Cancer incidence in five continents. IARC Scientific PublicationGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boyd NF, Fishell E, Jong R et al (1995) Mammographic densities as a criterion for entry to a clinical trial of breast cancer prevention. Br J Cancer 72:476–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Richardson SJ (1993) The biological basis of menopause. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab 7:1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Byng JW, Boyd NF, Fishell E et al (1996) Automated analysis of mammographic densities. Phys Med Biol 41:909–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Martin LJ. Methods for the Diet, Breast Cancer Prevention Study. Menopause and breast cancer risk: The influence of dietary fat reduction and breast cancer risk factors on timing of the menopuase and change in mammographic density. PhD Dissertation. 2005:41–59Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Augustin LSA et al (2002) Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 76:266–273Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brand-Miller JC, Liu V, Petocz P et al (2005) The glycemic index of foods influences postprandial insulin-like growth factor-binding protein responses in lean young subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 82:350–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hu Y, Block G, Norkus EP et al (2006) Relations of glycemic index and glycemic load with plasma oxidative stress markers. Am J Clin Nutr 84:70–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ursin G, Parisky YR, Pike MC et al (2001) Mammographic density changes during the menstrual cycle. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:141–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    White E, Velentgas P, Mandelson MT et al (1998) Variation in mammographic breast density by time in menstrual cycle among women aged 40–49 years. J Natl Cancer Inst 90:906–910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nordevang E, Azavedo E, Svane G et al (1993) Dietary habits and mammographic patterns in patients with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 26:207–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brisson J, Verreault R, Morrison A et al (1989) Diet, mammographic features of breast tissue, and breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 130:14–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nagata C, Matsubara T, Fujita H et al (2005) Associations of mammographic density with dietary factors in Japanese women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:2877–2880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sala E, Warren R, Duffy S et al (2000) High risk mammographic parenchymal patterns and diet: a case-control study. Br J Cancer 83:121–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vachon CM, Kushi LH, Cerhan JR et al (2000) Association of diet and mammographic breast density in the Minnesota breast cancer family cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9:151–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ursin G, Sun CL, Koh WP et al (2006) Associations between soy, diet, reproductive factors, and mammographic density in Singapore Chinese women. Nutr Cancer 56:128–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tamimi RM, Byrne C, Colditz GA et al (2007) Endogenous hormone levels, mammographic density, and subsequent risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 99:1178–1187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boyd NF, Martin LJ, Li Q et al (2006) Mammographic density as a surrogate marker for the effects of hormone therapy on risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:961–966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa J. Martin
    • 1
  • Carolyn V. Greenberg
    • 2
  • Valentina Kriukov
    • 2
  • Salomon Minkin
    • 2
  • David J. A. Jenkins
    • 3
  • Martin Yaffe
    • 4
  • Gregory Hislop
    • 5
  • Norman F. Boyd
    • 2
  1. 1.Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer ResearchOntario Cancer InstituteTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer ResearchOntario Cancer InstituteTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of Nutritional SciencesUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Department of Imaging ResearchSunnybrook Health Sciences CentreTorontoCanada
  5. 5.British Columbia Cancer AgencyVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations