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Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 107, Issue 2, pp 195–210 | Cite as

SUMO and estrogen receptors in breast cancer

  • Michalis V. Karamouzis
  • Panagiotis A. Konstantinopoulos
  • Filitsa A. Badra
  • Athanasios G. Papavassiliou
Review

Abstract

Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a family of proteins structurally similar to ubiquitin that have been found to be covalently attached to certain lysine residues of specific target proteins. By contrast to ubiquitination, however, SUMO proteins do not promote protein degradation but, instead, modulate important functional properties, depending on the protein substrate. These properties include—albeit not limited to—subcellular localization, protein dimerization, DNA binding and/or transactivation of transcription factors, among them estrogen receptors. Moreover, it has been suggested that SUMO proteins might affect transcriptional co-factor complexes of the estrogen receptor signalling cascade. Tissue and/or state specificity seems to be one of their intriguing features. In this regard, elucidation of their contribution to estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity during breast carcinogenesis will offer new insights into the molecular mechanisms governing sensitivity/resistance in currently applied endocrine treatment and/or chemoprevention, and provide novel routes to breast carcinoma therapeutics.

Keywords

Breast cancer Estrogen receptor SUMO Sumoylation Post-translational modification 

Abbreviations

AIs

Aromatase inhibitors

AP-1

Activator protein-1

AR

Androgen receptor

C/EBP

CAAT enhancer-binding protein

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor

GR

Glucocorticoid receptor

HECT

Homologous to E6–AP C-terminus

HSF

Heat shock transcription factor

Hsp

Heat shock protein

ILGF-1R

Insulin like growth factor-1 receptor

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

PCNA

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen

PKA

Protein kinase A

PPARγ

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ

PR

Progesterone receptor

RXRα

Rexinoid receptor α

SREBPs

Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins

TF

Transcription factor

TK

Tyrosine kinase

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michalis V. Karamouzis
    • 1
  • Panagiotis A. Konstantinopoulos
    • 1
    • 2
  • Filitsa A. Badra
    • 3
  • Athanasios G. Papavassiliou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical SchoolUniversity of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Division of Hematology – Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Radiology Department‘Thriassion’ General HospitalAthensGreece

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