Advertisement

Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 98, Issue 3, pp 285–294 | Cite as

Diet, lifestyle and BRCA-related breast cancer risk among French-Canadians

  • A Nkondjock
  • A. Robidoux
  • Y. Paredes
  • S.A. Narod
  • P. Ghadirian
Epidemiology

Abstract

Background

Although the connection between diet, lifestyle and hormones suggests that nutritional and lifestyle factors may exert an influence in the etiology of breast cancer (BC), it is not clear whether these factors operate in the same way in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) gene mutations who already have an elevated BC risk.

Methods

A case–control study was conducted within a cohort of 80 French-Canadian families with 250 members involving 89 carriers of mutated BRCA gene affected with BC and 48 non-affected carriers. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to ascertain dietary intake, and a lifestyle core questionnaire, to gather information on physical activity and other lifestyle risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in unconditional logistic regression models.

Results

After adjustment for age, maximum lifetime body mass index (BMI) and physical activity, a positive association was found between total energy intake and BRCA-related BC risk. OR was 2.76 (95%CI: 1.10–7.02; p=0.026 for trend), when comparing the highest tertile of intake with the lowest. The intake of other nutrients and dietary components was not significantly associated with the risk of BC. Age at the time the subjects reached maximum BMI was significantly related to an elevated BC risk (OR=2.90; 95%CI: 1.01–8.36; p=0.046 for trend). In addition, a direct and significant relationship was noted between maximum weight gain since both age 18 and 30 years and BC risk. The ORs were 4.64 (95%CI: 1.52–14.12; p=0.011 for trend) for weight gain since age 18 years and 4.11 (95%CI: 1.46–11.56; p=0.013 for trend) for weight gain since age 30 years, respectively. No overall association was apparent between BRCA-related BC risk and BMI, smoking, and physical activity.

Conclusion

The results of this preliminary study suggest that weight control in adulthood through dietary energy intake restriction is an important factor for the prevention of BRCA-related BC risk.

Keywords

BRCA breast cancer diet energy intake French-Canadian physical activity prevention 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Dr. André Nkondjock is a Research Fellow supported by the Canadian Cancer Society through an award from the National Cancer Institute of Canada. Funding from this study was received in part from the Canadian Cancer Etiology Research Network.

References

  1. 1.
    Canadian Cancer Statistics. Web Site: http://www.cancer.ca (accessed 20 December 2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Antoniou AC, Pharoah PD, Narod S, Risch HA, Eyfjord JE, Hopper JL, Olsson H, Johannsson O, Borg A, Pasini B, Radice P, Manoukian S, Eccles DM, Tang N, Olah E, Anton-Culver H, Warner E, Lubinski J, Gronwald J, Gorski B, Tulinius H, Thorlacius S, Eerola H, Nevanlinna H, Syrjakoski K, Kallioniemi OP, Thompson D, Evans C, Peto J, Lalloo F, Evans DG, Easton DF. (2005) Breast and ovarian cancer risks to carriers of the BRCA1 5382insC and 185delAG and BRCA2 6174delT mutations: a combined analysis of 22 population based studies J Med Genet 42(7):602–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research. (1997) Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. American Institute for Cancer Research, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nkondjock A, Shatenstein B, Ghadirian P. (2003) A case–control study of breast cancer and dietary intake of individual fatty acids and antioxidants in Montreal, Canada Breast 12(2):128–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nkondjock A, Ghadirian P ( 2004) Intake of specific carotenoids and essential fatty acids and breast cancer risk in Montreal, Canada Am J Clin Nutr 79(5):857–864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Key TJ, Schatzkin A, Willett WC, Allen NE, Spencer EA, Travis RC. (2004) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of cancer Public Health Nutr 7(1A):187–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lagerros YT, Hsieh SF, Hsieh CC. (2004) Physical activity in adolescence and young adulthood and breast cancer risk: a quantitative review Eur J Cancer Prev 13(1):5–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hamajima N, Hirose K, Tajima K, Rohan T, Calle EE, Heath CW, Jr., Coates RJ, Liff JM, Talamini R, Chantarakul N, Koetsawang S, Rachawat D, Morabia A, Schuman L, Stewart W, Szklo M, Bain C, Schofield F, Siskind V, Band P, Coldman AJ, Gallagher RP, Hislop TG, Yang P, Kolonel LM, Nomura AM, Hu J, Johnson KC, Mao Y, De Sanjose S, Lee N, Marchbanks P, Ory HW, Peterson HB, Wilson HG, Wingo PA, Ebeling K, Kunde D, Nishan P, Hopper JL, Colditz G, Gajalanski V, Martin N, Pardthaisong T, Silpisornkosol S, Theetranont C, Boosiri B, Chutivongse S, Jimakorn P, Virutamasen P, Wongsrichanalai C, Ewertz M, Adami HO, Bergkvist L, Magnusson C, Persson I, Chang-Claude J, Paul C, Skegg DC, Spears GF, Boyle P, Evstifeeva T, Daling JR, Hutchinson WB, Malone K, Noonan EA, Stanford JL, Thomas DB, Weiss NS, White E, Andrieu N, Bremond A, Clavel F, Gairard B, Lansac J, Piana L, Renaud R, Izquierdo A, Viladiu P, Cuevas HR, Ontiveros P, Palet A, Salazar SB, Aristizabel N, Cuadros A, Tryggvadottir L, Tulinius H, Bachelot A, Le MG, Peto J, Franceschi S, Lubin F, Modan B, Ron E, Wax Y, Friedman GD, Hiatt RA, Levi F, Bishop T, Kosmelj K, Primic-Zakelj M, Ravnihar B, Stare J, Beeson WL, Fraser G, Bullbrook RD, Cuzick J, Duffy SW, Fentiman IS, Hayward JL, Wang DY, McMichael AJ, McPherson K, Hanson RL, Leske MC, Mahoney MC, Nasca PC, Varma AO, Weinstein AL, Moller TR, Olsson H, Ranstam J, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA, Apelo RA, Baens J, Javier B, Lacaya LB, Ngelangel CA, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Marubini E, Ferraroni M, Gerber M, Richardson S, Segala C, Gatei D, Kenya P, Kungu A, Mati JG, Brinton LA, Hoover R, Schairer C, Spirtas R, Lee HP, Rookus MA, van Leeuwen FE, Schoenberg JA, McCredie M, Gammon MD, Clarke EA, Jones L, Neil A, Vessey M, Yeates D, Appleby P, Banks E, Beral V, Bull D, Crossley B, Goodill A, Green J, Hermon C, Key T, Langston N, Lewis C, Reeves G, Collins R, Doll R, Peto R, Mabuchi K, Preston D, Hannaford P, Kay C, Rosero-Bixby L, Gao YT, Jin F, Yuan JM, Wei HY, Yun T, Zhiheng C, Berry G, Cooper BJ, Jelihovsky T, MacLennan R, Shearman R, Wang QS, Baines CJ, Miller AB, Wall C, Lund E, Stalsberg H, Shu XO, Zheng W, Katsouyanni K, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Dabancens A, Martinez L, Molina R, Salas O, Alexander FE, Anderson K, Folsom AR, Hulka BS, Bernstein L, Enger S, Haile RW, Paganini-Hill A, Pike MC, Ross RK, Ursin G, Yu MC, Longnecker MP, Newcomb P, Bergkvist L, Kalache A, Farley TM, Holck S, Meirik O. (2002) Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer–collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease Br J Cancer 87(11):1234–1245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tonin PN, Perret C, Lambert JA, Paradis AJ, Kantemiroff T, Benoit MH, Martin G, Foulkes WD, Ghadirian P. (2001) Founder BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in early-onset French Canadian breast cancer cases unselected for family history Int J Cancer 95(3):189–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aretini P, D’Andrea E, Pasini B, Viel A, Mariani CR, Cortesi L, Ricevuto E, Agata S, Bisegna R, Boiocchi M, Caligo MA, Chieco-Bianchi L, Cipollini G, Crucianelli R, D’Amico C, Federico M, Ghimenti C, De Giacomi C, De Nicolo A, Della PL, Ferrari S, Ficorella C, Iandolo D, Manoukian S, Marchetti P, Marroni F, Menin C, Montagna M, Ottini L, Pensotti V, Pierotti M, Radice P, Santarosa M, Silingardi V, Turchetti D, Bevilacqua G, Presciuttini S. (2003) Different expressivity of BRCA1 and BRCA2: analysis of 179 Italian pedigrees with identified mutation Breast Cancer Res Treat 81(1):71–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tonin PM, Mes-Masson AM, Narod SA, Ghadirian P, Provencher D. (1999) Founder BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in French Canadian ovarian cancer cases unselected for family history Clin Genet 55(5):318–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jain M, Howe GR, Rohan T. (1996) Dietary assessment in epidemiology: comparison on food frequency and a diet history questionnaire with a 7-day food record Am J Epidemiol 143(9):953–960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jain M, Miller AB, To T. (1994) Premorbid diet and the prognosis of women with breast cancer J Natl Cancer Inst 86(18):1390–1397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ghadirian P, Jain M, Ducic S, Shatenstein B, Morisset R. (1998) Nutritional factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis: a case–control study in Montreal, Canada Int J Epidemiol 27(5):845–852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC, Irwin ML, Swartz AM, Strath SJ, O’Brien WL, Bassett DR, Jr., Schmitz KH, Emplaincourt PO, Jacobs DR, Jr., Leon AS. (2000) Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities Med Sci Sports Exerc 32(9 Suppl):S498–S504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Greenland S (1998) Analysis of polytomous exposures, outcome In: Rothman KJ, Greenland S, eds Modern Epidemiology, 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp. 301–328Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Albanes D. (1987) Total calories, body weight, and tumor incidence in mice Cancer Res 47(8):1987–1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Silvera SA, Jain M, Howe GR, Miller AB, Rohan TE. (2005) Energy balance and breast cancer risk: a prospective cohort study Breast Cancer Res Treat 1:1–10 [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Malin A, Matthews CE, Shu XO, Cai H, Dai Q, Jin F, Gao YT, Zheng W. (2005) Energy balance and breast cancer risk Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14(6):1496–1501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Boissonneault GA, Elson CE, Pariza MW. (1986) Net energy effects of dietary fat on chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis in F344 rats J Natl Cancer Inst 76(2):335–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dirx MJM, Zeegers MPA, Dagnelie PC, van den Bogaard T, vanden Brandt PA. (2003) Energy restriction and the risk of spontaneous mammary tumors in mice: a meta-analysis Int J Cancer 106 (5):766–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Michels KB, Ekbom A. (2004) Caloric restriction and incidence of breast cancer JAMA 291(10):1226–1230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nilsen TI, Vatten LJ. (2001) Prospective study of colorectal cancer risk and physical activity, diabetes, blood glucose and BMI: exploring the hyperinsulinaemia hypothesis Br J Cancer 84(3):417–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Robsahm TE, Tretli S. (2002) Breast cancer incidence in food- vs non-food-producing areas in Norway: possible beneficial effects of World War II Br J Cancer 86(3):362–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dirx MJ, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA, Lumey LH. (1999) Diet in adolescence and the risk of breast cancer: results of the Netherlands Cohort Study Cancer Causes Control 10(3):189–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McTiernan A, Kooperberg C, White E, Wilcox S, Coates R, Adams-Campbell LL, Woods N, Ockene J. (2003) Recreational physical activity and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Cohort Study JAMA 290(10):1331–1336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Willett W, Stampfer MJ (1998) Implications of total energy intake for epidemiologic analyses In: Willett WC (eds) Nutritional Epidemiology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 273–301Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ellison PT (1995) Understanding natural variation in human ovarian function In: Dunbar RIM (eds) Human Reproductive Decisions: Biological and Social Perspectives. St. Martin’s Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Key TJ, Verkasalo PK, Banks E. (2001) Epidemiology of breast cancer Lancet Oncol 2(3):133–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kari FW, Dunn SE, French JE, Barrett JC. (1999) Roles for insulin-like growth factor-1 in mediating the anti-carcinogenic effects of caloric restriction J Nutr Health Aging 3(2):92–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hursting SD, Kari FW. (1999) The anti-carcinogenic effects of dietary restriction: mechanisms and future directions Mutat Res 443(1–2):235–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sarkar NH, Fernandes G, Telang NT, Kourides IA, Good RA. (1982) Low-calorie diet prevents the development of mammary tumors in C3H mice and reduces circulating prolactin level, murine mammary tumor virus expression, and proliferation of mammary alveolar cells Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79(24):7758–7762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sylvester PW, Aylsworth CF, Meites J. (1981) Relationship of hormones to inhibition of mammary tumor development by underfeeding during the “critical period” after carcinogen administration Cancer Res 41(4):1384–1388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Harman D. (1992) Free radical theory of aging Mutat Res 275(3–6):257–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hursting SD, Lavigne JA, Berrigan D, Perkins SN, Barrett JC. (2003) Calorie restriction, aging, and cancer prevention: mechanisms of action and applicability to humans Annu Rev Med 54:131–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Willett W, Stampfer MJ. (1986) Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analyses Am J Epidemiol 124(1):17–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Willett WC, Giovannuci E (2005) Epidemiology of diet and cancer risk In: Shils ME, et al. (eds) Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1267–1279Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Trentham-Dietz A, Newcomb PA, Storer BE, Longnecker MP, Baron J, Greenberg ER, Willett WC. (1997) Body size and risk of breast cancer Am J Epidemiol 145(11):1011–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Huang Z, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Willett WC. (1997) Dual effects of weight and weight gain on breast cancer risk JAMA 278(17):1407–1411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Morimoto LM, White E, Chen Z, Chlebowski RT, Hays J, Kuller L, Lopez AM, Manson J, Margolis KL, Muti PC, Stefanick ML, Mctiernan A. (2002) Obesity, body size, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: the Women’s Health Initiative (United States) Cancer Causes Control 13(8):741–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    London SJ, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Rosner BA, Speizer FE. (1989) Prospective study of relative weight, height, and risk of breast cancer JAMA 262(20):2853–2858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ziegler RG, Hoover RN, Nomura AM, West DW, Pike MC, Lake AJ, Horn-Ross PL, Kolonel LN, Siiteri PK, Fraumeni JF. (1996) Relative weight, weight change, height, and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women J Natl Cancer Inst 88(10):650–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kotsopoulos J, Olopado OI, Ghadirian P, Lubinski J, Lynch HT, Isaacs C, Weber B, Kim-Sing C, Ainsworth P, Foulkes WD, Eisen A, Sun P, Narod SA. (2005) Changes in body weight and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers Breast Cancer Res 7(5):R833–R843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cauley JA, Gutai JP, Kuller LH, LeDonne D, Powell JG. (1989) The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women Am J Epidemiol 129(6):1120–1131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hulka BS, Liu ET, Lininger RA. (1994) Steroid hormones and risk of breast cancer Cancer 74(3 Suppl):1111–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stoll BA, Secreto G. (1992) New hormone-related markers of high risk to breast cancer Ann Oncol 3(6):435–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ballard-Barbash R. (1994) Anthropometry and breast cancer Body size-a moving target. Cancer 74(3 Suppl):1090–1100Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    van den Brandt PA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS, Adami HO, Beeson L, Folsom AR, Fraser G, Goldbohm RA, Graham S, Kushi L, Marshall JR, Miller AB, Rohan T, Smith-Warner SA, Speizer FE, Willett WC, Wolk A, Hunter DJ. (2000) Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight, and breast cancer risk Am J Epidemiol 152(6):514–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • A Nkondjock
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • A. Robidoux
    • 3
  • Y. Paredes
    • 1
  • S.A. Narod
    • 4
  • P. Ghadirian
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Epidemiology Research Unit, Research CentreCentre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM) – Hôtel-DieuMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition University of MontrealMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryCHUM - Hôtel-DieuMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Centre for Research in Women’s Health, Women’s College Hospital University of TorontoOntarioCanada
  5. 5.Epidemiology Research Unit, Research CentreCentre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM) – Hôtel-DieuMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations