Neural Basis of Early Somatosensory Change Detection: A Magnetoencephalography Study
The mismatch negativity (MMN) reflects the early detection of changes in sensory stimuli at the cortical level. The mechanisms underlying its genesis remain debated. This magnetoencephalography study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics and the neural mechanisms of the magnetic somatosensory MMN. Somatosensory evoked magnetic fields elicited by tactile stimulation of the right fingertip (Single), tactile stimulation of the right middle phalanx and fingertip (Double) or omissions (Omitted) of tactile stimuli were studied in different paradigms: in oddballs where Double/Omitted followed a sequence of four Single, in sequences of two stimuli where Double occurred after one Single, and in random presentation of Double only. The predictability of Double occurrence in oddballs was also manipulated. Cortical sources of evoked responses were identified using equivalent current dipole modeling. Evoked responses elicited by Double were significantly different from those elicited by Single at the contralateral secondary somatosensory (cSII) cortex. Double elicited higher cSII cortex responses than Single when preceded by a sequence of four Single, compared to when they were preceded by one Single. Double elicited higher cSII cortex response when presented alone compared to when Double were preceded by one or a sequence of Single. Omitted elicited similar cSII cortex response than Single. Double in oddballs led to higher cSII cortex responses when less predictable. These data suggest that early tactile change detection involves mainly cSII cortex. The predictive coding framework probably accounts for the SII cortex response features observed in the different tactile paradigms.
KeywordsChange detection Mismatch negativity Somatosensory Adaptation Magnetoencephalography Predictive coding
GN is supported by a research grant from the Fonds Erasme (http://www.fondserasme.org/, Brussels, Belgium). VW (Research logistic collaborator) and XDT (Post-doctorate Clinical Master Specialist) are supported by a research grant from the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS, Belgium). This work is supported by a research grant from the Fondation ULB to Pr Serge Goldman (Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium) (http://fondation.ulb.ac.be/fr/imagerie-fonctionnelle-cerveau-goldman/). The MEG project at the ULB-Hôpital Erasme is supported by the Fonds Erasme (http://www.fondserasme.org/, Brussels, Belgium). Gilles Naeije was funded by the Fonds Erasme (Brussels, Belgium; http://www.fondserasme.org/fonds-erasme-pour-la-recherche-medicale). Xavier De Tiège is Postdoctorate Clinical Master Specialist at the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS-FNRS, Brussels, Belgium).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Kida T, Nishihira A, Hatta M, Fumoto T (2001) Automatic mismatch detection in somatosensory modality and the effect of stimulus probability. Jpn J Clin Neurophysiol 29:417–424Google Scholar
- King JR, Faugeras F, Gramfort A, Schurger A, El Karoui I, Sitt JD, Rohaut B, Wacongne C, Labyt E, Bekinschtein T, Cohen L, Naccache L, Dehaene S (2013) Single-trial decoding of auditory novelty responses facilitates the detection of residual consciousness. Neuroimage 83:726–738CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mauguiere F, Merlet I, Forss N, Vanni S, Jousmäki V, Adeleine P, Hari R (1997) Activation of a distributed somatosensory cortical network in the human brain: a dipole modelling study of magnetic fields evoked by median nerve stimulation. Part II: effects of stimulus rate, attention and stimulus detection. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 104:290–295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ruben J, Schwiemann J, Deuchert M, Meyer R, Krause T, Curio G, Villringer K, Kurth R, Villringer A (2001) Somatotopic organization of human secondary somatosensory cortex. Cereb Cortex 11:463–473Google Scholar
- Wikström H, Huttunen J, Korvenoja A, Virtanen J, Salonen O, Aronen H, Ilmoniemi RJ (1996) Effects of interstimulus interval on somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs): a hypothesis concerning SEF generation at the primary sensorimotor cortex. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 100:479–487CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar