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Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 150, Issue 3, pp 341–360 | Cite as

Turbulence in Continental Stratocumulus, Part I: External Forcings and Turbulence Structures

  • Ming Fang
  • Bruce A. Albrecht
  • Virendra P. Ghate
  • Pavlos Kollias
Article

Abstract

Comprehensive, ground-based observations from the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements program Southern Great Plains site are used to study the variability of turbulence forcings and cloud-scale turbulence structures in a continental stratocumulus cloud. The turbulence observations are made from an upward facing cloud (35 GHz) Doppler radar. Cloud base and liquid water path are characterized using a lidar at the surface and a microwave radiometer. The turbulence characterizations are compared and contrasted with those observed in marine stratocumulus clouds. During the 16-h observation period used in this study the cloud-base and cloud-top heights evolve with time and changes in liquid water path observed by the radiometer are consistent with variations in cloud depth. Unlike marine stratocumulus clouds, a diurnal cycle of cloud thickness and liquid water path is not observed. The observed surface latent, sensible, and virtual sensible heat fluxes and the radiative fluxes exhibit a diurnal cycle with values increasing from sunrise to afternoon and decreasing afterwards. During the night, the sensible heat, virtual sensible heat and the net radiative fluxes at the surface are slightly negative. Solar radiative heating prevails in the cloud layer during the day and strong radiative cooling exists at cloud top even during the day. Unlike marine stratocumulus, surface heating described by the convective velocity scale \(W_\mathrm{s}^{*}\) and cloud-top cooling described by \(W_\mathrm{r}^{*}\) are both important in driving the in-cloud turbulence during the day, whereas cloud-top cooling is the exclusive contributor during the night. The combined \(W_\mathrm{s}^{*}\) and \(W_\mathrm{r}^{*}\) (the total velocity scale \(W_\mathrm{t}^{*})\) provides a useful way to track the evolution of the turbulence structure in the cloud. The variance of the radar-measured radial velocity, which is related to resolved turbulence, follows the diurnal cycle and is consistent with the total velocity scale \(W_\mathrm{t}^{*}\) variations. It is higher during the day and lower during the night, which is contrary to that in marine stratocumulus. The \(W_\mathrm{t}^{*}\) values are lowest around sunset when the radiative cooling is also small due to upper-level clouds observed above the low-level stratus. The vertical distribution of the variance results from the surface heating during the day and cloud-top cooling during the night. The squared spectrum width, which is related to turbulence structures within the radar sampling volume (unresolved turbulence) also follows the diurnal cycle. Its vertical distribution indicates that the unresolved turbulence more closely relates to the processes near cloud top. Turbulence in the cloud requires about an hour to respond to the external forcings of surface heating and cloud-top radiative cooling. Positive skewness prevails during the day and negative skewness prevails at night with a sharp transition around sunset. Resolved turbulence dominates near cloud base whereas unresolved turbulence dominates near cloud top. The turbulence characteristics and variability defined in this study can be used to evaluate the time evolution of turbulence structures in large eddy simulation forced by surface and cloud-top radiative forcings.

Keywords

Continental stratocumulus External forcings Turbulence 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE SC0000777 as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program Climate Research Facility.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ming Fang
    • 1
  • Bruce A. Albrecht
    • 1
  • Virendra P. Ghate
    • 2
  • Pavlos Kollias
    • 3
  1. 1.Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric ScienceThe University of MiamiMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Division of Environmental SciencesArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA
  3. 3.Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic SciencesMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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