Advertisement

Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 147, Issue 2, pp 281–300 | Cite as

Pollutant Plume Dispersion in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Idealized Urban Roughness

  • Colman C. C. Wong
  • Chun-Ho Liu
Article

Abstract

The Gaussian model of plume dispersion is commonly used for pollutant concentration estimates. However, its major parameters, dispersion coefficients, barely account for terrain configuration and surface roughness. Large-scale roughness elements (e.g. buildings in urban areas) can substantially modify the ground features together with the pollutant transport in the atmospheric boundary layer over urban roughness (also known as the urban boundary layer, UBL). This study is thus conceived to investigate how urban roughness affects the flow structure and vertical dispersion coefficient in the UBL. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is carried out to examine the plume dispersion from a ground-level pollutant (area) source over idealized street canyons for cross flows in neutral stratification. A range of building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios, covering the regimes of skimming flow, wake interference, and isolated roughness, is employed to control the surface roughness. Apart from the widely used aerodynamic resistance or roughness function, the friction factor is another suitable parameter that measures the drag imposed by urban roughness quantitatively. Previous results from laboratory experiments and mathematical modelling also support the aforementioned approach for both two- and three-dimensional roughness elements. Comparing the UBL plume behaviour, the LES results show that the pollutant dispersion strongly depends on the friction factor. Empirical studies reveal that the vertical dispersion coefficient increases with increasing friction factor in the skimming flow regime (lower resistance) but is more uniform in the regimes of wake interference and isolated roughness (higher resistance). Hence, it is proposed that the friction factor and flow regimes could be adopted concurrently for pollutant concentration estimate in the UBL over urban street canyons of different roughness.

Keywords

Atmospheric boundary layer Computational fluid dynamics  Large-eddy simulation Pollutant plume dispersion  Two-dimensional street canyons  Urban roughness elements 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was jointly supported by the Strategic Research Areas and Themes, Computational Sciences, and the University Research Committee Seed Funding Programme of Basic Research 200910159028 of the University of Hong Kong. The computation is supported in part by a Hong Kong UGC Special Equipment Grant (SEG HKU09). The technical support from Lillian Y.L. Chan, Frankie F.T. Cheung, Tony W.K. Cheung, and W.K. Kwan with HKUCC is appreciated.

References

  1. Barlow JF, Belcher SE (2002) A wind tunnel model for quantifying fluxes in the urban boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 104:131–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bogard DG, Thole KA (2000) Wall bounded turbulent flows. In: Johnson RW (ed) The handbook of fluid dynamics. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  3. Boppana VBL, Xie Z-T, Castro IP (2010) Large-eddy simulation of dispersion from surface sources in arrays of obstacles. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 135:433–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bottema M (1997) Urban roughness modelling in relation to pollutant dispersion. Atmos Environ 31:3059–3075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Britter RE, Hanna SR (2003) Flow and dispersion in urban areas. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 35:469–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burattini P, Leonardi S, Orlandi P, Antonia RA (2008) Comparison between experiments and direct numerical simulations in a channel flow with roughness on one wall. J Fluid Mech 600:403–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng H, Castro IP (2002) Near wall flow over urban like roughness. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 104:229–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheng WC, Liu C-H (2011) Large-eddy simulation of flow and pollutant transports in and above two-dimensional idealized street canyons. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 139:411–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clauser FH (1954) Turbulent boundary layers in adverse pressure gradients. J Aero Sci 21:91–108Google Scholar
  10. Coceal O, Dobre A, Thomas TG, Belcher SE (2007) Structure of turbulence flow over regular arrays of cubical roughness. J Fluid Mech 589:375–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Counihan J (1971) Wind tunnel determination of the roughness length as a function of the fetch and the roughness density of three-dimensional roughness elements. Atmos Environ 5:637–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davidson MJ, Mylne KR, Jones CD, Phillips JC, Perkins RJ, Fung JCH, Hunt JCR (1995) Plume dispersion through large groups of obstacles: a field investigation. Atmos Environ 29:3245–3256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davidson MJ, Snyder WH, Lawson RE, Hunt JCR (1996) Wind tunnel simulations of plume dispersion through groups of obstacles. Atmos Environ 30:3715–3731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de Nevers N (1995) Air pollution control engineering. McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 586 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Draxler RR (1980) An improved Gaussian model for long-term average air concentration estimates. Atmos Environ 14:597–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Flores O, Jiménez J (2006) Effect of wall-boundary disturbances on turbulent channel flows. J Fluid Mech 566:357–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gosman AD, Pun WM, Runchal AK, Spalding DB, Wolfshtein M (1969) Heat and mass transfer in recirculating flows. Academic Press, New York, 338 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Grimmond CSB, Oke TR (1998) Aerodynamic properties of urban areas derived from analysis of surface form. J Appl Meteorol 38:1262–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gromke C, Manes C, Walter B, Lehning M, Guala M (2011) Aerodynamic roughness length of fresh show. Boundary-Layer-Meteorol 141:21–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hagishima A, Tanimoto J, Nagayama K, Meno S (2009) Aerodynamic parameters of regular arrays of rectangular blocks with various geometries. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 132:315–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hanna SR, Tehranian S, Carissimo B, Macdonald RW, Lohner R (2002) Comparisons of model simulations with observations of mean flow and turbulence within simple obstacle arrays. Atmos Environ 36:5067–5079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ikegaya N, Hagishima A, Tanimoto J, Tanaka Y, Narita K, Zaki SA (2012) Geometric dependence of the scalar transfer efficiency over rough surfaces. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 143:357–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jackson PS (1981) On the displacement height in the logarithmic velocity profile. J Fluid Mech 111:15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jiménez J (2004) Turbulent flows over rough walls. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 36:143–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kanda M, Moriizumi T (2009) Momentum and heat transfer over urban-like surfaces. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 131:385–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kastner-Klein P, Rotach MW (2004) Mean flow and turbulence characteristics in an urban roughness sublayer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 111:55–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kim B-G, Lee C, Joo S, Ryu K-C, Kim S, You D, Shim W-S (2011) Estimation of roughness parametes within sparse urban-like obstacle arrays. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 139:457–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kono T, Tamura T, Ashie Y (2010) Numerical investigation of mean winds within canopies of regularly arrayed cubical buildings under neutral stability conditions. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 134:131–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Leonardi S, Orlandi P, Smalley RJ, Djenidi L, Antonia RA (2003) Direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow with transverse square bars on the wall. J Fluid Mech 491:229–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lettau H (1969) Note on aerodynamic roughness-parameter estimation on the basis of roughness-element description. J Appl Meteorol 8:828–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lien F-S, Yee E (2004) Numerical modeling of the turbulent flow developing within and above a 3-D building array, Part I: a high-resolution Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes Approach. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 112:427–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liu C-H, Barth MC (2002) Large-eddy simulation of flow and scalar transport in a modeled street canyon. J Appl Meteorol 41:660–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu C-H, Cheng WC, Leung TCY, Leung DYC (2011) On the mechanism of air pollutant re-entrainment in two-dimensional idealized street canyons. Atmos Environ 45:4763–4769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu C-H, Chung TNH (2012) Forced convective heat transfer over ribs at various separation. Int J Heat Mass Transf 55:5111–5119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu C-H, Leung DYC, Barth MC (2005) On the prediction of air and pollutant exchange rates in street canyons of different aspect ratios using large-eddy simulation. Atmos Environ 39:1567–1574Google Scholar
  36. Liu C-H, Wong CCC (2012) On the pollutant removal, dispersion, and entrainment over two-dimensional idealized street canyons. Atmos Res (in press)Google Scholar
  37. Macdonald RW, Griffiths RF (1996) Field experiments of dispersion through regular arrays of cubic structures. Atmos Environ 31:783–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Macdonald RW, Griffiths RF, Hall DJ (1998a) A comparison of results from scaled field and wind tunnel modeling of dispersion in arrays of obstacles. Atmos Environ 32:3845–3862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Macdonald RW, Griffiths RF, Hall DJ (1998b) An improved method for the estimation of surface roughness of obstacle arrays. Atmos Environ 32:1857–1864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Martilli A, Santiago JL (2007) CFD simulation of airflow over a regular array of cubes. Part II: analysis of spatial average properties. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 122:635–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Martin DO (1976) Comment on the change of concentration standard deviations with distance. J Air Pollut Control Assoc 26:145–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Millward-Hopkins JT, Tomlin AS, Ma L, Ingham D, Pourkashanian M (2011) Estimating aerodynamic parameters of urban-like surfaces with heterogeneous building heights. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 141:443–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nakayama H, Takemi T, Nagai H (2011) LES analysis of the aerodynamic surface properties for turbulent flows over building arrays with various geometries. J Appl Meteorl Climatol 50:1692–1712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nikuradse J (1933) Stromungsgesetze in rauhen Rohren. Forsch. Arb. Ing.-Wes. 361. (English translation (1950) Laws of flow in rough pipes. NACA TM 1292)Google Scholar
  45. Oke TR (1988) Street design and urban canopy layer climate. Energy Build 11:103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. OpenFOAM (2012) OpenFOAM: The open source CFD toolbox. http://www.openfoam.com/
  47. Orlandi P, Leonardi S (2006) DNS of turbulent channel flows with two- and three-dimensional roughness. J Turbul 7:1–22Google Scholar
  48. Orlandi P, Leonardi S (2008) Direct numerical simulation of three-dimensional turbulent rough channels: parameterization and flow physics. J Fluid Mech 606:399–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Orlandi P, Leonardi S, Tuzi R, Antonia RA (2003) DNS of turbulent channel flow with wall velocity disturbances. Phys Fluids 15:3497–3600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Orlandi P, Leonardi S, Antonia RA (2006) Turbulent channel flow with either transverse or longitudinal roughness elements on one wall. J Fluid Mech 561:279–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pascheke F, Barlow JF, Robins A (2008) Wind-tunnel modeling of dispersion from a scalar area source in urban-like roughness. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 126:103–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pasquill F (1961) The estimation of the dispersion of windborne material. Meteorol Mag 90:33–49Google Scholar
  53. Pasquill F, Smith FB (1983) Atmospheric diffusion, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, 437 ppGoogle Scholar
  54. Perry AE, Schofield WH, Joubert PN (1969) Rough wall turbulent boundary layers. J Fluid Mech 37:383–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pope SB (2009) Turbulent flows, 6th edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 771 ppGoogle Scholar
  56. Raupach MR, Antonia RA, Rajagopalan S (1991) Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers. Appl Mech Rev 44:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Salizzoni P, Soulhac L, Mejean P, Perkins RJ (2008) Influence of a two-scale surface roughness on a neutral turbulence boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:97–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Salizzoni P, Liefferinge RV, Soulhac L, Mejean P, Perkins RJ (2009) Influence of wall roughness on the dispersion of a passive scalar in a turbulent boundary layer. Atmos Environ 43:734–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Santiago JL, Martilli A, Martin F (2007) CFD simulation of airflow over a regular array of cubes. Part I: three-dimensional simulation of the flow and validation with wind tunnel data. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 122:609–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Santiago JL, Coceal O, Martilli A, Belcher SE (2008) Variation of the sectional drag coefficient of a group of buildings with packing density. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 128:445–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schlichting H, Gersten K (2000) Boundary layer theory. Springer, Berlin, 801 ppGoogle Scholar
  62. Schumann U (1975) Subgrid scale model for finite difference simulations of turbulent flows in plane channels and annuli. J Comput Phys 18:376–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shao Y, Yang Y (2005) A scheme for drag partition over rough surfaces. Atmos Environ 39:7351–7361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sill BL (1988) Turbulent boundary layer profiles over uniform rough surfaces. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 31:147–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smagorinsky J (1963) General circulation experiments with the primitive equations I: the basic experiment. Mon Weather Rev 91:99–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tomas S, Eiff O, Masson V (2011) Experimental investigation of turbulent momentum transfer in a neutral boundary layer over rough surface. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 138:385–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Turner DB (1994) Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates: an introduction to dispersion modeling. Lewis Publishers, London, 192 ppGoogle Scholar
  68. Webb RL, Eckert ERG, Goldstein RJ (1972) Generalized heat transfer and friction correlations for tubes with repeated-rib roughness. Int J Heat Mass Transf 15:180–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Xie Z-T, Coceal O, Castro IP (2008) Large-eddy simulation of flows over random urban-like obstacles. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 129:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zaki SA, Hagishima A, Tanimoto J, Ikegaya N (2011) Aerodynamic parameters of urban building arrays with random geometries. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 138:99–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations